Norepinephrine in septic shock: when and how much?

@article{Hamzaoui2017NorepinephrineIS,
  title={Norepinephrine in septic shock: when and how much?},
  author={Olfa Hamzaoui and Thomas W. L. Scheeren and Jean-Louis Teboul},
  journal={Current Opinion in Critical Care},
  year={2017},
  volume={23},
  pages={342–347}
}
Purpose of review Norepinephrine is the first-line agent recommended during resuscitation of septic shock to correct hypotension due to depressed vascular tone. Important clinical issues are the best timing to start norepinephrine, the optimal blood pressure target, and the best therapeutic options to face refractory hypotension when high doses of norepinephrine are required to reach the target. Recent findings Recent literature has reported benefits of early administration of norepinephrine… 
Central venous pressure value can assist in adjusting norepinephrine dosage after the initial resuscitation of septic shock
TLDR
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TLDR
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Fluid management in the critically ill.
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TLDR
Data is reported that reveals an association between earlier vasopressor initiation in septic shock and better outcome, and whether this is a linkage to better care, is related to improved early tissue perfusion, or relates to sparing of fluids to reach the MAP target.
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TLDR
Early administration of norepinephrine aimed at rapidly achieving a sufficient perfusion pressure in severely hypotensive septic-shock patients is able to increase cardiac output through an increase in cardiac preload and cardiac contractility.
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TLDR
In septic shock patients, decreasing the dose of norepinephrine decreased the mean systemic pressure and, to a lesser extent, the resistance to venous return, as a result, venousReturn decreased.
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TLDR
It is shown that early administration of norepinephrine in septic shock patients is associated with an increased survival rate, and this effect on hospital mortality is significantly different between the Early-NE and Late-NE groups.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
The dosage of norepinephrine associated with an intensive care unit (ICU) death rate greater than 90% and the death rate reached 90% for the quantile of patients receiving more than 1 &mgr;g/kg per minute of norpinephrine were determined.
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TLDR
Norepinephrine administration aimed at achieving a MAP higher than 65 mmHg in septic shock patients with life-threatening hypotension resulted in improvement of NIRS variables measured at the level of the thenar eminence.
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TLDR
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