Noradrenergic modulation of hypoglossal motoneuron excitability: developmental and putative state-dependent mechanisms.

@article{Funk2011NoradrenergicMO,
  title={Noradrenergic modulation of hypoglossal motoneuron excitability: developmental and putative state-dependent mechanisms.},
  author={Gregory D Funk and Jennifer D Zwicker and Rajeevan Selvaratnam and Dean M. Robinson},
  journal={Archives italiennes de biologie},
  year={2011},
  volume={149 4},
  pages={426-53}
}
Hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons (MNs) contribute to diverse behaviors. Their innervation of the genioglossus muscle, a tongue protruder, plays a critical role in maintaining upper airway patency during breathing. Indeed, reduced activity in these motoneurons is implicated in sleep related disorders of breathing such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The excitability of these MNs is modulated by multiple neurotransmitter systems. The focus of this review is on the modulation of XII MN excitability… CONTINUE READING