Nontraditional surgical approaches for implantation of pacemaker and cardioverter defibrillator systems in patients with limited venous access.

@article{Jaroszewski2009NontraditionalSA,
  title={Nontraditional surgical approaches for implantation of pacemaker and cardioverter defibrillator systems in patients with limited venous access.},
  author={Dawn E. Jaroszewski and Gregory T. Altemose and Luis P. Scott and Komandoor Srivasthan and Patrick A. Devaleria and Jesse J Lackey and Francisco A. Arabia},
  journal={The Annals of thoracic surgery},
  year={2009},
  volume={88 1},
  pages={112-6}
}
BACKGROUND Indications for placement of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) and pacemakers have expanded, and traditional transvenous implantation may not be feasible in patients with aberrant anatomy or venous obstruction. In these settings, successful lead placement has required innovative surgical approaches. A case series of successful… CONTINUE READING