Three hundred cases of nonspecific aortoarteritis are reviewed. A new classification of the condition is proposed identifying 3 stages (acute inflammation, subacute recurrent inflammation and chronic condition), 3 types of morphologic changes (stenosing, deforming and aneurysmatic), 3 sites of lesion (aortic branches, the thoracoabdominal aorta and combined lesions) and 4 degrees of organ ischemia. Ten syndromes are distinguished in the clinical pattern, and their relative incidences are specified. A total of 253 operations, including 218 reconstructive ones, were performed: 83 on aortic branches, 87 on thoracoabdominal aorta, 40 on the abdominal aorta, and 11 for aortic aneurysms. Reconstructive surgery of renal arteries was performed in 89 patients, and of visceral arteries, in 55. The need for anti-inflammatory treatment is emphasized. Surgical treatment produces better results, as compared to conservative treatment alone.