Nonlinearities, Feedbacks and Critical Thresholds within the Earth's Climate System

  title={Nonlinearities, Feedbacks and Critical Thresholds within the Earth's Climate System},
  author={Jos{\'e} A. Rial and Roger A. Pielke and Martin Beniston and Martin Claussen and Josep G. Canadell and Peter M. Cox and Hermann Held and Nathalie de Noblet‐Ducoudr{\'e} and Ronald G. Prinn and James F. Reynolds and J. D. Salas},
  journal={Climatic Change},
The Earth's climate system is highly nonlinear: inputs and outputs are not proportional, change is often episodic and abrupt, rather than slow and gradual, and multiple equilibria are the norm. While this is widely accepted, there is a relatively poor understanding of the different types of nonlinearities, how they manifest under various conditions, and whether they reflect a climate system driven by astronomical forcings, by internal feedbacks, or by a combination of both. In this paper, after… 
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