Nonlinear Insulator in Complex Oxides

  title={Nonlinear Insulator in Complex Oxides},
  author={Z. Q. Liu and Denise P{\`e}il{\'i}ng Leusink and W. Lu and X. Renshaw Wang and X. P. Yang and Kalon Gopinadhan and Anil Annadi and Sankar Dhar and Y. P. Feng and Haibin Su and G. C. Xiong and Thirumalai Venkatesan and Ariando},
  journal={Bulletin of the American Physical Society},
The insulating state is one of the most basic electronic phases in condensed matter. This state is characterised by an energy gap for electronic excitations that makes an insulator electrically inert at low energy. However, for complex oxides, the very concept of an insulator must be re-examined. Complex oxides behave differently from conventional insulators such as SiO2, on which the entire semiconductor industry is based, because of the presence of multiple defect levels within their band gap…