Noninvasive biomarkers in NAFLD and NASH — current progress and future promise

  title={Noninvasive biomarkers in NAFLD and NASH — current progress and future promise},
  author={Vincent Wai-Sun Wong and Leon A. Adams and Victor de L{\'e}dinghen and Grace Lai‐Hung Wong and Silvia Sookoian},
  journal={Nature Reviews Gastroenterology \& Hepatology},
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 25% of the global adult population and is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. [] Key Method We cover biochemical, imaging and genetic biomarkers and discuss biomarker discovery in the omics era.The combination of increasing disease prevalence and the prospect of approved pharmacological treatments has made the development of noninvasive biomarkers for NAFLD and NASH a research priority. In this Review, the authors comprehensively summarize the…

Clinical and Molecular Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Staging of NAFLD

Novel biomarkers discovered through omics approaches with a particular focus on RNA biomarkers (microRNAs, long-noncoding RNAs), showing promising diagnostic performance for NAFL/NASH diagnosis and fibrosis staging are reported.

Noninvasive evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Current evidence and practice

Current noninvasive methods for assessing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, including steatosis, NASH, and NAFLD-related fibrosis, are discussed and effective algorithms consisting of imaging and nonimaging biomarkers for diagnosing advanced fibrosis and reducing unnecessary biopsies in clinical practice are explored.

Advance of Serum Biomarkers and Combined Diagnostic Panels in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Serum biomarkers and combined diagnostic panels of NAFLD are summarized to provide some guidance for the noninvasive diagnosis and further clinical studies.

Diagnostic Modalities of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: From Biochemical Biomarkers to Multi-Omics Non-Invasive Approaches

This article provides a comprehensive review of the currently available and emerging non-invasive diagnostic tools used in assessing NAFLD, highlighting the importance of accurate and validated diagnostic tools.

Integrative Proposal for the Use of Biomarkers in Clinical Practice Management of NAFLD/NASH

This chapter summarizes the concepts reviewed in depth in previous chapters and proposes the NITs to be used at present time to evaluate presence and severity of NAFLD in clinical practice.

Noninvasive biomarkers for liver inflammation in NAFLD: current and future.

Machine learning and deep learning models, be they supervised or unsupervised learning, are promising tools to identify various subtypes of NAFLD, including those with dominating liver inflammation, contributing to sustainable care pathways forNAFLD.

Current Status in Testing for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)

An urgent need exists to find reliable, accurate and noninvasive biomarkers discriminating between different disease stages or to develop innovative imaging techniques to quantify steatosis.

Characterization and Proteome of Circulating Extracellular Vesicles as Potential Biomarkers for NASH

The study shows that the quantity and protein constituents of circulating EVs provide strong evidence for EV protein–based liquid biopsies for NAFLD/NASH diagnosis, and suggests that levels of total and hepatocyte‐derived EVs correlate with NASH clinical characteristics and disease severity.

Insights into the Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Therapeutics of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases

The current epidemiology, diagnosis, animal models, pathogenesis, and treatment strategies for NAFLD are comprehensively reviewed, emphasizing the outstanding breakthroughs in the above fields and promising medications in and beyond phase II.



Biomarkers of NAFLD progression: a lipidomics approach to an epidemic1[S]

An “omics” approach to detecting a reproducible signature of lipid metabolites, aqueous intracellular metabolites, SNPs, and mRNA transcripts in a double-blinded study of patients with different stages of NAFLD that involves profiling liver biopsies, plasma, and urine samples is described.

Novel plasma biomarkers associated with liver disease severity in adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Specific plasma biomarkers are significantly associated with disease activity and severity of fibrosis in NAFLD and are potentially valuable tools for noninvasive stratification of patients with NAFLd and identification of targets for therapeutic intervention.

Noninvasive imaging methods to determine severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

The role of these new and promising noninvasive imaging modalities to assess disease severity in NAFLD are reviewed and it is critically important to distinguish between NASH and non‐NASHNAFLD.

A Novel Diagnostic Biomarker Panel for Obesity-related Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)

Four ELISA-based tests were combined to form a simple diagnostic biomarker for NASH and blinded validation of this model confirmed its reliability for separating NASH from simple steatosis.

The NAFLD fibrosis score: A noninvasive system that identifies liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD

A simple scoring system accurately separates patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with and without advanced fibrosis, rendering liver biopsy for identification ofAdvanced fibrosis unnecessary in a substantial proportion of patients.

Noninvasive markers of fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Validating the European Liver Fibrosis Panel and exploring simple markers

The ELF panel has good diagnostic accuracy in an independent validation cohort of patients with NAFLD and the addition of established simple markers augments the diagnostic performance across different stages of fibrosis, which will potentially allow superior stratification of patients for emerging therapeutic strategies.

A 4-Polymorphism Risk Score Predicts Steatohepatitis in Children With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

A score based on genetic risk factors significantly predicts NASH in obese children with increased liver enzymes, representing a proof-of-principle that genetic scores may be useful to predict long-term outcomes of the disease and guide clinical management.

Plasma Cathepsin D Levels: A Novel Tool to Predict Pediatric Hepatic Inflammation

Investigating whether plasma levels of cathepsin D (CatD), a lysosomal protease, correlated with the severity of liver inflammation in pediatric NAFLD found that CatD levels were gradually reduced and corresponded with increasing severity of Liver inflammation, steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, andNAFLD activity score.

Fibrosis stage is the strongest predictor for disease‐specific mortality in NAFLD after up to 33 years of follow‐up

NAFLD patients have increased risk of death, with a high risk ofdeath from cardiovascular disease and liver‐related disease, and the NAS was not able to predict overall mortality, whereas fibrosis stage predicted both overall and disease‐specific mortality.