Nonindigenous species introductions: a threat to Canada's forests and forest economy1

@article{Allen2002NonindigenousSI,
  title={Nonindigenous species introductions: a threat to Canada's forests and forest economy1},
  author={Elizabeth A. Allen and Lee M. Humble},
  journal={Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology},
  year={2002},
  volume={24},
  pages={103 - 110}
}
When organisms are moved from their natural range to new ecosystems, they are considered nonindigenous, invasive, or exotic species. Movement of exotic or native species may be international or from areas within Canada. Historically, Canada's forests have felt the effects of nonindigenous species introductions, as for example, Dutch elm disease, white pine blister rust, gypsy moth, and pine shoot beetle. With changes in global trade patterns, novel introductions will continue to occur. Although… 
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