Nonindigenous species introductions: a threat to Canada's forests and forest economy1

  title={Nonindigenous species introductions: a threat to Canada's forests and forest economy1},
  author={Elizabeth A. Allen and Lee M. Humble},
  journal={Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology},
  pages={103 - 110}
When organisms are moved from their natural range to new ecosystems, they are considered nonindigenous, invasive, or exotic species. Movement of exotic or native species may be international or from areas within Canada. Historically, Canada's forests have felt the effects of nonindigenous species introductions, as for example, Dutch elm disease, white pine blister rust, gypsy moth, and pine shoot beetle. With changes in global trade patterns, novel introductions will continue to occur. Although… 
Historical Accumulation of Nonindigenous Forest Pests in the Continental United States
A comprehensive species list to assess the accumulation rates of nonindigenous forest insects and pathogens established in the United States found sap feeders and foliage feeders dominated the comprehensive list, but phloem- and wood-boring insects and foliageFeeders were often more damaging than expected.
Ecological impacts of non-indigenous invasive fungi as forest pathogens
  • J. Loo
  • Environmental Science
    Biological Invasions
  • 2008
There is an urgent need for improved understanding of long-term impacts across ecological systems, and proposed approaches for characterizing the magnitude of ecological impacts use characteristics of both the non-indigenous pathogen and the host species.
Characterised and Projected Costs of Nonindigenous Species in Canada
Characterised and projected economic costs associated with nuisance NIS in Canada, through a combination of case-studies and an empirical model derived from 21 identified effects of 16 NIS, totalled $187 million Canadian (CDN) per year.
The last great forest: a review of the status of invasive species in the North American boreal forest
It is found that an increasing number of exotic plants, insects, earthworms, slugs and pathogens are establishing in the boreal forest and research is scarce and their ecological effects are poorly understood.
The study resulted in approximately one hundred recommendations for improved safeguarding in the GCR, thereby helping CISWG to enhance its Caribbean Regional Invasive Species Intervention Strategy (CRISIS) for preventing the introduction and spread of exotic pests.
Importing deciduous wood chips from North America to northern Europe – the risk of introducing bark- and wood-boring insects
Because north European trees have not coevolved with these herbivores and thus may lack adequate defenses, most of the identified beetle species are likely to spread in “defense- and enemy-free space” if they are introduced to northern Europe, with considerable economic and ecological consequences.
Diversity of non-native terrestrial arthropods on woody plants in Canada
The arrival rate of species in Canada increased from the late nineteenth century until about 1960, and declined rapidly thereafter, and seems to have reduced the rate of insect invasion.
Systematics: Its role in supporting sustainable forest management
Canada must do more than maintain the inadequate status quo by increasing its investment in systematics in order to meet its nation’s obligations, both domestically and internationally.
Biological Strategies of Invasive Bark Beetles and Borers Species
The present study attempts to identify the biological characteristics of invasive (high-impact in the secondary area) bark beetles and borers species, contributing to their success in an invaded area.


Implications of Non-Indigenous Insect Introductions in Forest Ecosystems
The status of non -indigenous introductions as forest pests in Canada and ongoing research on species associated with solid wood packaging are briefly reviewed. Introductions began soon after the
Invasion by Exotic Forest Pests: A Threat to Forest Ecosystems
This work presents case histories that illustrate the invasion process via details of the arrival, spread, impact, and management of selected exotic forest pests.
Invasive pests (‘biological pollutants’) and US forests: whose problem, who pays?
The permanency of ecological impacts and associated economic costs needs to be considered in discussions with other National Plant Protection Organizations in designing and adopting mutual agreements and protocols, and suggestions are given for addressing these impending needs in view of expanding global trade.
Ongoing studies of the introduction and establishment of invasive bark and wood-boring insects around the major Canadian port of Vancouver, British Columbia, have shown that five previously
Fungi that cause sapstain in Canadian softwoods
A more diverse range of fungi was found in logs than in lumber; some species were more frequently isolated from one type of substrate and rarely (or not at all) from the other; no fungal species occurred exclusively in a particular region or wood substrate.
The Pathogens and Pests of Chestnuts
An overview of the pine wood nematode ban in North America.
The history, ecology, and biology of the BursaphelenchusMonochamus complex in North America, including the pine wood nematode, and its vectors in exported softwood products is reviewed.
Pest risk assessment of the importation into the United States of unprocessed Pinus and Abies logs from Mexico.
For those organisms of concern that are associated with Mexican Pinus and Abies logs, specific phytosanitary measures may be required to ensure the quarantine safety of proposed importations.
First North American Record of the Palearctic Species Tetropium fuscum (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
The first confirmed presence in North America of the palearctic cerambycid, Tetropium fuscum (Fabr.) (the brown spruce longhorn beetle) is reported. It was discovered attacking red spruce, Picea
New Immigrant Insects in Hawaii: 1962 through 1976
In December 1961,1 delivered a presidential address before this Society which was titled "On Accidental Immigration and Establishment of Terrestrial Ar thropods in Hawaii During Recent Years"