Nongenomic transmission across generations of maternal behavior and stress responses in the rat.

  title={Nongenomic transmission across generations of maternal behavior and stress responses in the rat.},
  author={Darlene D. Francis and Josie Diorio and D Liu and Michael J. Meaney},
  volume={286 5442},
In the rat, variations in maternal care appear to influence the development of behavioral and endocrine responses to stress in the offspring. The results of cross-fostering studies reported here provide evidence for (i) a causal relationship between maternal behavior and stress reactivity in the offspring and (ii) the transmission of such individual differences in maternal behavior from one generation of females to the next. Moreover, an environmental manipulation imposed during early… 
Variations in maternal care in infancy regulate the development of stress reactivity
Maternal Programming of Individual Differences in Defensive Responses in the Rat
The results of a series of studies showing that variations in mother‐pup interactions program the development of individual differences in behavioral and endocrine stress responses in the rat suggest an epigenetic process whereby the experience of the mother alters the nature of the parent‐offspring interactions and thus the phenotype of the offspring.
Development of Individual Differences in Behavioral and Endocrine Responses to Stress: Role of the Postnatal Environment
The sections in this article are: Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Stress Response, Environmental Regulation of Hypothalamy, and Effects of Handling on Chronic Responses to Stress.
Both maternal care received and genotype influence stress‐related phenotype in female rats
The results indicate that the dam/pup interaction is dynamic and implicate the genotype of the offspring in influencing the level of maternal care received, and suggest that some genotypes may have a dampening effect on the impact of maternal Care on stress-related phenotypes in adulthood.
Paternal transmission of behavioural and metabolic traits induced by postnatal stress to the 5th generation in mice
Altered risk-taking and glucose regulation caused by postnatal stress are still manifested in the 5th generation but are attenuated in the 6th generation, suggesting epigenetic mechanisms of transmission.
Hormones and Behavior
This review will highlight studies in laboratory rodents which demonstrate plasticity in the maternal brain and the role of maternally-induced changes in DNA methylation in establishing the link between variations in maternal care and consequent developmental outcomes.
Life at the Interface Between a Dynamic Environment and a Fixed Genome: Epigenetic Programming of Stress Responses by Maternal Behavior
This work has shown that maternal behavior in rodents is associated with long-term programming of individual differences in behavioral and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress in the offspring.
Implications of temporal variation in maternal care for the prediction of neurobiological and behavioral outcomes in offspring.
The findings illustrate the dissociation between the effects of LG and ABN on offspring development and provide critical insights into the temporal characteristics of maternal behavior that have methodological implications for the study of maternal effects.
Stress During Gestation Alters Postpartum Maternal Care and the Development of the Offspring in a Rodent Model


Prenatal Stress Induces High Anxiety and Postnatal Handling Induces Low Anxiety in Adult Offspring: Correlation with Stress-Induced Corticosterone Secretion
Results suggest that individual differences in adult emotional status may be governed by early environmental factors; however, perinatal experiences are not effective in influencing adult memory capacity.
Adoption reverses the long-term impairment in glucocorticoid feedback induced by prenatal stress
It is found that prenatal stress prolongs stress-induced corticosterone secretion in adult rats, which was attributed to the observed decrease in central corticosteroid receptors; adoption, irrespective of the stress experience of the foster mother, reverses the effects of prenatal stress; and adoption per se increases maternal behavior and decreases the stress- induced cortic testosterone secretion peak in the adult offspring.
Psychobiology of maternal behavior: contribution to the clinical understanding of maternal behavior among humans
  • J. Rosenblatt
  • Psychology, Biology
    Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). Supplement
  • 1994
There is a transition period between these two phases soon after parturition during which contact with the young plays a crucial role in the maintenance of maternal behavior.
Maternal care during infancy regulates the development of neural systems mediating the expression of fearfulness in the rat.
It is suggested that maternal care during infancy serves to "program" behavioral responses to stress in the offspring by altering the development of the neural systems that mediate fearfulness.
Maternal care, hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress.
It is suggested that maternal behavior serves to "program" hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress in the offspring.
Relationships between maternal behavior of SHR and WKY dams and adult blood pressures of cross-fostered F1 pups.
The results indicate that some aspects of maternal behavior may change as a function of pup characteristics, and support the hypothesis that the cardiovascular system may be shaped by experiences of early life which are embedded in mother/young behavioral interactions.
Effect of neonatal handling on age-related impairments associated with the hippocampus.
A subtle manipulation early in life can retard the emergence of a complex degenerative cascade of aging in the rat, including glucocorticoid hypersecretion, hippocampal neuron death, and cognitive impairments.
Maternal depression effects on infants and early interventions.
  • T. Field
  • Psychology
    Preventive medicine
  • 1998
Current research suggests that as early as birth the infants show a profile of "dysregulation" in their behavior, physiology, and biochemistry which probably derives from prenatal exposure to a biochemical imbalance in their mothers.