Impact of Flavonols on Cardiometabolic Biomarkers: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Human Trials to Explore the Role of Inter-Individual Variability
BACKGROUND Antioxidant enrichment of LDL can increase its resistance to oxidation and hence reduce its atherogenicity. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether in vivo supplementation with nonalcoholic red wine extract and quercetin can increase the oxidative resistance of LDL, and also whether the supplementation has any effect on other antioxidative micronutrients present in the blood. METHODS Twenty-one male subjects were supplemented with a placebo drink for 2 weeks and randomized into two groups. One group (n = 11) received the red wine extract (1 g/day, equivalent to 375 mL of red wine) and the other group (n = 10) quercetin (30 mg/day) for 2 weeks, followed by a 5-week washout period. RESULTS In the red wine extract-supplemented group, ex vivo copper-initiated oxidation of LDL (lag phase, mean +/- SD) was 40 +/- 11 min at the baseline, and increased significantly to 47 +/- 6 min [P <0.05 compared with placebo (38 +/- 4 min) and the washout values (40 +/- 5 min)]. In the quercetin-supplemented group, the lag phase was 44 +/- 11 and 40 +/- 5 min for the baseline and placebo, respectively, and increased significantly to 51 +/- 7 min [P <0.05 compared with placebo and washout (41 +/- 9 min)] after supplementation. Plasma lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol) did not change during the study period. Supplementation with red wine extract or quercetin had no effect on plasma vitamin C and E, retinol, and carotenoid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS Alcohol-free red wine extract and one of its components, quercetin, can inhibit LDL oxidation after in vivo supplementation; such "inhibition" is unrelated to changes in antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid concentrations.