Non-tool-using rooks, Corvus frugilegus, solve the trap-tube problem

  title={Non-tool-using rooks, Corvus frugilegus, solve the trap-tube problem},
  author={Sabine Tebbich and Amanda Madeleine Seed and Nathan J. Emery and Nicola S. Clayton},
  journal={Animal Cognition},
The trap-tube problem is used to assess whether an individual is able to foresee the outcome of its actions. To solve the task, an animal must use a tool to push a piece of food out of a tube, which has a trap along its length. An animal may learn to avoid the trap through a rule based on associative processes, e.g. using the distance of trap or food as a cue, or by understanding relations between cause and effect. This task has been used to test physical cognition in a number of tool-using… 
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Investigating Physical Cognition in Rooks, Corvus frugilegus
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Tool selectivity in a non-primate, the New Caledonian crow (Corvus moneduloides)
An experiment is presented showing that New Caledonian crows are able to choose tools of the appropriate size for a novel task, without trial-and-error learning.
Probing the limits of tool competence: Experiments with two non-tool-using species (Cercopithecus aethiops and Saguinus oedipus)
Results provide further evidence that tool-use may derive from domain-general, rather than domain-specific cognitive capacities that evolved for tool use per se, and whether these differences lie in the conceptual or motor domain.
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