Non-target impacts of forest defoliator management options: Decision for no spraying may have worse impacts on non-target Lepidoptera than Bacillus thuringiensis insecticides

  title={Non-target impacts of forest defoliator management options: Decision for no spraying may have worse impacts on non-target Lepidoptera than Bacillus thuringiensis insecticides},
  author={J Mark Scriber},
  journal={Journal of Insect Conservation},
Management programs for major forest defoliators such as gypsy moths or forest tent caterpillars, and crop pests such as the European corn borer have shifted from broad-spectrum insecticides to more environmentally benign microbial pesticides such as Bacillus thuringiensis (foliage sprays and transgenic toxin expression in plant tissues). Phytochemically resistant host plants and natural enemies have been used as alternative pest management strategies (including generalist tachinid flies such… CONTINUE READING

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