Non-target effects of clothianidin on monarch butterflies

Abstract

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) frequently consume milkweed in and near agroecosystems and consequently may be exposed to pesticides like neonicotinoids. We conducted a dose response study to determine lethal and sublethal doses of clothianidin using a 36-h exposure scenario. We then quantified clothianidin levels found in milkweed leaves adjacent to… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s00114-015-1270-y

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