Non-photosynthetic predators are sister to red algae

  title={Non-photosynthetic predators are sister to red algae},
  author={Ryan M. R. Gawryluk and Denis V. Tikhonenkov and Elisabeth Hehenberger and Filip Husn{\'i}k and Alexander P. Mylnikov and Patrick J. Keeling},
Rhodophyta (red algae) is one of three lineages of Archaeplastida1, a supergroup that is united by the primary endosymbiotic origin of plastids in eukaryotes2,3. Red algae are a diverse and species-rich group, members of which are typically photoautotrophic, but are united by a number of highly derived characteristics: they have relatively small intron-poor genomes, reduced metabolism and lack cytoskeletal structures that are associated with motility, flagella and centrioles. This suggests that… 

Single cell genomics reveals plastid-lacking Picozoa are close relatives of red algae

This work uses single-cell genomics from natural samples combined with phylogenomics to infer the evolutionary origin of the phylum Picozoa, a globally distributed but seemingly rare group of marine microbial heterotrophic eukaryotes and indicates that red algae and rhodelphids obtained their plastids independently of other archaeplastids.

The Algal Tree of Life from a Genomics Perspective

The approach is to rely on the analysis of ortholog groups identified in recently generated genomic and transcriptomic data to infer the ETOL, rather than using a subset of manually chosen and curated genes.

A molecular timescale for the origin of red algal-derived plastids

This period in the Meso- and Neoproterozoic Eras set the stage for the later expansion to dominance of red algal-derived primary production in the contemporary oceans, which has profoundly altered the global geochemical and ecological conditions of the Earth.

Dating the photosynthetic organelle evolution in Archaeplastida, Paulinella and secondary-plastid bearing lineages

The results indicate that primary plastids evolved prior to 2.1 - 1.8 Bya, i.e. before glaucophytes diverged from the other archaeplastidans, and discovered a significant impact of climatic and atmospheric parameters on the diversification rate of plastid lineages.

Evolution of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes; Current Opinion, Perplexity, and a New Perspective.

It is proposed that the free-living ancestors to the plastids may have originated from a diversified lineage of cyanobacteria that were prone to symbioses, akin to some modern-day algae such as the Symbiodiniaceae dinoflagellates and Chlorella-related algae that associate with a number of unrelated host eukaryotes.

The closest lineage of Archaeplastida is revealed by phylogenomics analyses that include Microheliella maris

This study analysed a 319-gene alignment and demonstrated that Microheliella maris represents a basal lineage of one of the major eukaryotic lineages, Cryptista, and proposed a new clade name ‘Pancryptista’ for Cryptista plus M. maris, collectively called ‘CAM clade’ here.

A molecular timescale for eukaryote evolution with implications for the origin of red algal-derived plastids

This period in the Meso- and Neoproterozoic Eras set the stage for the later expansion to dominance of red algal-derived primary production in the contemporary oceans, which profoundly altered the global geochemical and ecological conditions of the Earth.

Genomic Insights into Plastid Evolution

An overview of recent advances in understanding of the origin and spread of plastids from the perspective of comparative genomics is provided.

Phytochrome Evolution in 3D: Deletion, Duplication, and Diversification.

Three important themes in phytochrome evolution are identified: deletion, duplication, and diversification, which drive phy tochrome evolution as organisms evolve in response to environmental challenges.



Evidence of ancient genome reduction in red algae (Rhodophyta)

Analysis of orthologous gene gains and losses identifies two putative major phases of genome reduction: in the stem lineage leading to all red algae resulting in the loss of major functions such as flagellae and basal bodies, the glycosyl‐phosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis pathway, and the autophagy regulation pathway.

Red Algal Phylogenomics Provides a Robust Framework for Inferring Evolution of Key Metabolic Pathways

This analysis revealed losses of the mevalonate pathway on at least three separate occasions in lineages that contain Cyanidioschyzon, Porphyridium, and Chondrus, establishing a framework for in-depth studies of the origin and evolution of genes and metabolic pathways in Rhodophyta.

Endosymbiosis undone by stepwise elimination of the plastid in a parasitic dinoflagellate

Significance Endosymbiotic organelles are a defining feature of eukaryotes—the last common ancestor and all extant eukaryotes possess at least a mitochondrial derivative. Although mitochondria and

Mosaic origin of the heme biosynthesis pathway in photosynthetic eukaryotes.

Compared genomic data, the heme pathway in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana and the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae is compared to those of green algae and higher plants, as well as to Those of heterotrophic eukaryotes (fungi, apicomplexans, and animals).

The number, speed, and impact of plastid endosymbioses in eukaryotic evolution.

  • P. Keeling
  • Biology
    Annual review of plant biology
  • 2013
Questions are examined about the number of endosymbiotic events needed to explain plastid diversity, whether the genetic contribution of the endOSymbionts to the host genome goes far beyond plastids-targeted genes, and whether organelle origins are best viewed as a singular transition involving one symbiont or as a gradual transition involving a long line of transient food/symbiont.

Single-Cell Genomics Reveals Organismal Interactions in Uncultivated Marine Protists

By using shotgun sequencing of uncultured marine picobiliphytes, it is revealed the distinct interactions of individual cells, which suggests that these picobilIPhytes are heterotrophs.

Gene-based predictive models of trophic modes suggest Asgard archaea are not phagocytotic

Gene-based predictive models of trophic modes reveal the Asgard archaea are not phagocytotic, and suggest instead that the origin of phagcytosis required an ancestral archaeal input of cytoskeleton components, a suite of bacterial proteins centred around calcium signalling, and a certain degree of innovation.