Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: Basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated report from an I.F.C.N. Committee

  title={Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: Basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated report from an I.F.C.N. Committee},
  author={Paolo Maria Rossini and David Burke and R. Chen and Leonardo G. Cohen and Zafiris J. Daskalakis and Riccardo Di Iorio and Vincenzo Di Lazzaro and Florinda Ferreri and Paul B. Fitzgerald and Mark S. George and Mark Hallett and J. P. Lefaucheur and Berthold Langguth and Hideyuki Matsumoto and Carlo Miniussi and Michael A. Nitsche and {\'A}lvaro Pascual-Leone and Walter Paulus and Simone Rossi and John C. Rothwell and Hartwig Roman Siebner and Y. Ugawa and Vincent Walsh and Ulf Ziemann},
  journal={Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology},
  pages={1071 - 1107}
  • P. Rossini, D. Burke, U. Ziemann
  • Published 10 February 2015
  • Medicine
  • Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology

An Overview of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation: Basic Principles and Clinical Applications

Although the data on the clinical utility of the other modes of stimulation are more limited, the electrical stimulation techniques have the advantage of lower cost, portability, applicability at home, and can readily be combined with training or rehabilitation.

Non-invasive brain stimulation as a tool to study cerebellar-M1 interactions in humans

The main conclusion from the 27 reviewed articles is that the effects of cerebellar “plasticity” protocols on M1 activity are generally inconsistent, but two measurements showed relatively reproducible effects in healthy individuals: reduced response of M1 to sensorimotor ”plasticities” (paired-associative stimulation, PAS) and reduced CBI following repetitive TMS and TES.

Noninvasive Brain Stimulation: Challenges and Opportunities for a New Clinical Specialty.

The authors focus on the use of TMS in the treatment of medication refractory depression when possible, because this is the most widely accepted clinical indication for TMS to date.

The Various Forms of Non-invasive Brain Stimulation and Their Clinical Relevance

An overview of the ever-growing family of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) methodologies, their clinical applications, and mechanisms of action involved is provided.

Clinical utility and prospective of TMS–EEG

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Primary Motor Cortex beyond Motor Rehabilitation: A Review of the Current Evidence

The latest evidence on using M1-rTMS to treat non-motor symptoms of diverse etiologies is summarized and the potential mechanistic rationale behind the management of each of these symptoms is discussed.

The therapeutic use of non-invasive brain stimulation in multiple sclerosis - a review.

There are still no official recommendations for the therapeutic use of tDCS or rTMS in MS, but well-designed studies, deeper knowledge about pathomechanisms underlying MS, and the combination of such techniques with motor and cognitive rehabilitation might results in higher effectiveness of NIBS.

Non-invasive Brain Stimulation for Central Neuropathic Pain

The research and clinical application of the noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) technique in the treatment of neuropathic pain (NP) are increasing. In this review article, we outline the



Magnetic stimulation of the human brain and peripheral nervous system: an introduction and the results of an initial clinical evaluation.

The results of the first clinical study using magnetic stimulation show clear central motor pathway slowing in multiple sclerosis patients, and the technique is compared with conventional electrical stimulation.

Magnetic-motor-root stimulation: Review

Assessment of motor conduction times using magnetic stimulation of brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves.

This study shows that magnetic stimulation alone permits to assess central conduction times in motor pathways with the same reliability as any of the other stimulation modalities hitherto proposed in literature.

Corticospinal activity evoked and modulated by non‐invasive stimulation of the intact human motor cortex

Data that have elucidated the action of TMS and TES are reviewed, concentrating mainly on the most direct evidence available from spinal epidural recordings of the descending corticospinal volleys, to show that it is potentially possible to test and condition specific neural circuits in motor cortex that could be affected differentially by disease, or be used in different forms of natural behaviour.

[Study of central motor pathways using cortical magnetic stimulation and spinal electrical stimulation: results in 20 normal subjects].

The magnetic stimulation has the great advantage of being painless and allows a safe evaluation of the central motor pathways in man and could be explained by the fact that electrical stimulation elicits a direct response in the cortico-spinal tract whereas magnetic cortical stimulation has indirect effects on the pyramidal cells of the motor cortex through excitatory interneurons.

Basic Mechanisms of TMS

  • Y. TeraoY. Ugawa
  • Biology
    Journal of clinical neurophysiology : official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
  • 2002
Transcranial magnetic stimulation is now established as an important noninvasive measure for neurophysiologic investigation of the central and peripheral nervous systems in humans and these techniques will open up new possibilities for investigating the physiologic function of the brain.

Comparison of activation of corticospinal neurons and spinal motor neurons by magnetic and electrical transcranial stimulation in the lumbosacral cord of the anaesthetized monkey.

The different sites of activation of corticospinal neurons by TMS and TES, as well as the different distribution of D and I responses that they evoke, may both contribute to the differences in the onset latencies of the EMG responses evoked by these methods in human subjects.

Non-invasive evaluation of central motor tract excitability changes following peripheral nerve stimulation in healthy humans.

Transcranial stimulation excites virtually all motor neurons supplying the target muscle. A demonstration and a method improving the study of motor evoked potentials.

A triple stimulation technique (TST) is developed which, through two collisions, links central to peripheral conduction and suppresses desynchronization of MEPs and provides new insights into normal corticospinal tract conduction.