Non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of chronic kidney disease by reverse iontophoresis of urea in vivo.


BACKGROUND Reverse iontophoresis uses a small current to extract molecules and ions through the skin. The aim of the study was to determine whether reverse iontophoresis of urea can be used (i) to diagnose and monitor non-invasively chronic kidney disease (CKD), and (ii) to track urea levels closely during a hemodialysis session. METHODS A current of 0… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2008.02.012


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