Non-invasive assessment of adrenocortical function in the male African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and its relation to musth.

@article{Ganswindt2003NoninvasiveAO,
  title={Non-invasive assessment of adrenocortical function in the male African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and its relation to musth.},
  author={Andr{\'e} Ganswindt and Rupert Palme and Michael Heistermann and Santiago Borrag{\'a}n and J. Keith Hodges},
  journal={General and comparative endocrinology},
  year={2003},
  volume={134 2},
  pages={156-66}
}
Adult male elephants periodically show the phenomenon of musth, a condition associated with increased aggressiveness, restlessness, significant weight reduction and markedly elevated androgen levels. It has been suggested that musth-related behaviours are costly and that therefore musth may represent a form of physiological stress. In order to provide data on this largely unanswered question, the first aim of this study was to evaluate different assays for non-invasive assessment of… CONTINUE READING

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