INTRODUCTION The natural course of abdominal aneurysms is progressive expansion, rupture, embolisation, thrombosis and compression of the visceral organs. The majority of papers report that inflammatory aortic and iliac aneurysms are associated with perianeurysmal and retroperitoneal fibrosis that ultimately results in the structural compromise of the urinary tract. Ureteral obstruction occurs in 20% to 71% of cases and approximately one half of these patients will present with obstructive uropathy. Most patients with inflammatory aneurysm are symptomatic, with elevated serum inflammatory markers, and characteristic multislice CT findings including a thickened aortic wall and a mass of periaortic inflammatory tissue. CASE OUTLINE A 70-year-old man was admitted at the Vascular Surgery Clinic "Dedinje", Belgrade, because of ultrasonically verified asymptomatic aortoiliac aneurysm. Multisclice CT findings showed left urethral dilatation and hydronephrosis secondary to extrinsic ureteral obstruction due to aortoiliac aneurysm. CT findings, laboratory tests and finally, histopathologic examination showed atherosclerotic aneurysm without inflammation and retroperitoneal fibrosis. The patient was successfully treated with surgical resection of the aneurysm and aortobiliac reconstruction with "Y" prosthesis. CONCLUSION We present a rare case of ureteral obstruction secondary to atherosclerotic aneurysm which, to our knowledge, has not been previously described in the domestic literature. A successful operative repair was performed. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the seventh day after the surgery with normal vascular status and renal function.