Non-immunological defense in an evolutionary framework.

  title={Non-immunological defense in an evolutionary framework.},
  author={Benjamin J Parker and Seth M Barribeau and Alice M Laughton and Jacobus C. de Roode and Nicole M. Gerardo},
  journal={Trends in ecology & evolution},
  volume={26 5},
After parasite infection, invertebrates activate immune system-based defenses such as encapsulation and the signaling pathways of the innate immune system. However, hosts are often able to defend against parasites without using these mechanisms. The non-immunological defenses, such as behaviors that prevent or combat infection, symbiont-mediated defense, and fecundity compensation, are often ignored but can be important in host-parasite dynamics. We review recent studies showing that heritable… CONTINUE READING

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