γ-Aminobutyric acid is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in adults, acting through ionotropic chloride-permeable GABAA receptors (GABAARs), and metabotropic GABABRs coupled to calcium or potassium channels, and cyclic AMP signalling. During early development, γ-aminobutyric acid is the main neurotransmitter and is not hyperpolarizing, as GABAAR activation is depolarizing while GABABRs lack coupling to potassium channels. Despite extensive knowledge on GABAARs as key factors in neuronal development, the role of GABABRs remains unclear. Here we address GABABR function during rat cortical development by in utero knockdown (short interfering RNA) of GABABR in pyramidal-neuron progenitors. GABABR short interfering RNA impairs neuronal migration and axon/dendrite morphological maturation by disrupting cyclic AMP signalling. Furthermore, GABABR activation reduces cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation of LKB1, a kinase involved in neuronal polarization, and rescues LKB1 overexpression-induced defects in cortical development. Thus, non-hyperpolarizing activation of GABABRs during development promotes neuronal migration and morphological maturation by cyclic AMP/LKB1 signalling.