- Published 1985 in European Biophysics Journal

In this paper, we describe a systematic approach to the theoretical analysis of non-equilibrium voltage noise that arises from ions moving through pores in membranes. We assume that an ion must cross one or two barriers in the pore in order to move from one side of the membrane to the other. In our analysis, we consider the following factors: a) surface charge as a variable in the kinetic equations, b) linearization of the kinetic equations, c) master equation approach to fluctuations. To analyze the voltage noise arising from ion movement through a two barrier (i.e., one binding site) pore, we included the effects of ions in the channel's interior on the voltage noise. The current clamp is considered as a white noise generating additional noise in the system. In contrast to what is found for current noise, at low frequencies the voltage noise intensity is reduced by increasing voltage across the membrane. With this approach, we demonstrate explicity for the examples treated that, apart from additional noise generated by the current clamp, the non-equilibrium voltage fluctuations can be related to the current fluctuations by the complex admittance.

@article{Frehland1985NonequilibriumVN,
title={Non-equilibrium voltage noise generated by ion transport through pores},
author={Eckart Frehland and P. Solleder},
journal={European Biophysics Journal},
year={1985},
volume={11},
pages={167-178}
}