Centromere-specific DNA probes for chromosomes 4, 7 and 18 were used to simultaneously analyze chromosome loss, non-disjunction, breaks within the labeled region, and nucleoplasmic bridges induced by gamma rays in binucleated human lymphocytes. The doses used were 0, 1, 2 and 4 Gy, and approximately 1000 cells were scored per dose. Micronucleus frequency increased in a linear-quadratic fashion. For chromosome loss, significant increases were observed at 2 and 4 Gy, whereas for non-disjunction significant increases were observed at 1 Gy; thus non-disjunction allowed us to detect the effects of radiation at a lower dose than chromosome loss. The use of centromere-specific probes allowed discrimination between the clastogenic and aneugenic effects of ionizing radiation. The analysis of chromosome loss, not taking fragmented signals into account, ensures the detection of an aneugenic effect, which was not possible using pancentromeric probes. The frequency of chromosome breakage within the labeled regions was higher in nuclei than in micronuclei, suggesting an increase in the engulfment of chromosomal material by nuclei as a consequence of the presence of cytochalasin B in the cultures. Chromatin filaments connecting main nuclei, the so-called nucleoplasmic bridges, were observed in irradiated samples, and are a manifestation of rearranged chromosomes producing anaphase bridges.