Non-classical pathways of cell-mediated allograft rejection: new challenges for tolerance induction?

@article{Moine2003NonclassicalPO,
  title={Non-classical pathways of cell-mediated allograft rejection: new challenges for tolerance induction?},
  author={Ala{\'i}n Le Moine and Michel Goldman},
  journal={American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons},
  year={2003},
  volume={3 2},
  pages={101-6}
}
Allograft rejection results from separate pathways primarily controlled by CD4+ T cells. Refinement of transplantation models together with investigations on rejection occurring despite co-stimulation blockade revealed unexpected pathways involving CD8+ T cells, NK cells and Th2 cytokines. In this minireview, we discuss these non-classical pathways of allograft rejection and their relevance for the induction of tolerance in the clinics.