Non-ant antiherbivore defenses before plant-ant colonization in Macaranga myrmecophytes

  title={Non-ant antiherbivore defenses before plant-ant colonization in Macaranga myrmecophytes},
  author={Masahiro Nomura and Takao Itioka and Kaori Murase},
  journal={Population Ecology},
We examined changes in the intensity of non-ant defenses of three myrmecophytic Macaranga species before and after the initiation of symbiosis with ants in a Bornean dipterocarp forest. The intensities of non-ant defenses at different growth stages of each Macaranga species were estimated by measuring the survival rate of larvae of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, when the larvae were fed on fresh leaves from seedlings (saplings) at three growth stages of each Macaranga species. In all… CONTINUE READING


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