Consumption is an inherently cultural activity and actual evidence about it is strongly influenced by both the cultural orientation of scholars and the cultural settings in which such evidence has been studied. A long tradition in consumption studies has developed in the Western, economically developed, societies by scholars whose backgrounds are rooted in the Western tradition of thought. Apart from some exceptions, some of which will be reviewed hereafter, consumption studies generally present this sort of Western bias in epistemological and ontological terms. The purpose of this special issue is that of highlighting the importance and the need for considering theoretical and ideological approaches to the studies of consumption that do not necessarily belong to the Western tradition. As such, non-Western contexts that have been observed from a Western perspective need to be reconsidered under a different light. In so doing, scholars need to interpret consumption in the light of theoretical categories and constructs that are compatible with the cultural context under scrutiny (Venkatesh, 1995; Meamber and Venkatesh, 2000).