Non-Smad pathways in TGF-β signaling

  title={Non-Smad pathways in TGF-β signaling},
  author={Ying E Zhang},
  journal={Cell Research},
Transforming growth factor-β utilizes a multitude of intracellular signaling pathways in addition to Smads to regulate a wide array of cellular functions. These non-canonical, non-Smad pathways are activated directly by ligand-occupied receptors to reinforce, attenuate, or otherwise modulate downstream cellular responses. These non-Smad pathways include various branches of MAP kinase pathways, Rho-like GTPase signaling pathways, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT pathways. This review… CONTINUE READING
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