Non-Gaussian power grid frequency fluctuations characterized by Lévy-stable laws and superstatistics

  title={Non-Gaussian power grid frequency fluctuations characterized by L{\'e}vy-stable laws and superstatistics},
  author={Benjamin Sch{\"a}fer and Christian Beck and Kazuyuki Aihara and Dirk Witthaut and Marc Timme},
  journal={Nature Energy},
Multiple types of fluctuations impact the collective dynamics of power grids and thus challenge their robust operation. Fluctuations result from processes as different as dynamically changing demands, energy trading and an increasing share of renewable power feed-in. Here we analyse principles underlying the dynamics and statistics of power grid frequency fluctuations. Considering frequency time series for a range of power grids, including grids in North America, Japan and Europe, we find a… 
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