Non-Cigarette Tobacco and the Lung

@article{Schivo2013NonCigaretteTA,
  title={Non-Cigarette Tobacco and the Lung},
  author={Michael Schivo and Mark Avdalovic and S. P. Murin},
  journal={Clinical Reviews in Allergy \& Immunology},
  year={2013},
  volume={46},
  pages={34-53}
}
Cigarette smoking is known to cause a wide range of damaging health outcomes; however, the effects of non-cigarette tobacco products are either unknown or perceived as less harmful than cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco, cigar smoking, and waterpipe smoking have increased in usage over the past few decades. Some experts believe that their use is reaching epidemic proportions. Factors such as a perception of harm reduction, targeted advertising, and unrecognized addiction may drive the increased… 
Electronic nicotine delivery systems for smoking cessation: where are we?
TLDR
During the last few years, there have been longitudinal, cross-sectional, and randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of electronic cigarettes as smoking cessation aids, and a focused analysis of these studies is presented.
Poly-tobacco use among HIV-positive smokers: implications for smoking cessation efforts.
TLDR
Poly-tobacco use prevalence among adult HIV-positive smokers was considerably higher than in the general population, and special attention must be placed on concurrent use of cigarettes and cigars among HIV- positive smokers.
Electronic cigarettes: patterns of use, health effects, use in smoking cessation and regulatory issues
TLDR
E-cigarettes may have some potential as smoking cessation aids and, in the researchers’ view, should therefore be subject to further research and regulation similar to other nicotine replacement therapies.
Relationships Among Chewing Tobacco, Cigarette Smoking, and Chronic Health Conditions in Males 18–44 Years of Age
TLDR
Clinicians should be aware of the similar health risks associated with all tobacco use at ages younger than may be expected, and encourage cessation of any tobacco use.
Waterpipe smoking induces epigenetic changes in the small airway epithelium
TLDR
It is demonstrated that light-use waterpipe smoking is associated with epigenetic changes and related transcriptional modifications in the SAE, the cell population demonstrating the earliest pathologic abnormalities associated with chronic cigarette smoking.
E-Cigarettes and Smoking Cessation: Evidence from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
TLDR
Use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation and reduction, and more randomised controlled trials are needed to assess effectiveness against other cessation methods.
Substance Use and Misuse among Adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the United States, 2015–2019: Prevalence, Association, and Moderation
TLDR
Adults with COPD in the United States were more likely to use tobacco products and less likely toUse alcohol and serious psychological distress and gender were moderators in associations between COPD and substance use but not in substance misuse.
PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS IN SHISHA-ONLY SMOKERS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH INSOMNIA IN LEBANON
TLDR
In population younger than 50 years old, shisha smoking seems not as harmful as widely believed especially in regards to lung functions and insomnia, and physical activity is a positive predictor of normal PFT.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 163 REFERENCES
Smokeless tobacco: the epidemiology and politics of harm
  • C. Phillips, K. Heavner
  • Medicine, Political Science
    Biomarkers : biochemical indicators of exposure, response, and susceptibility to chemicals
  • 2009
TLDR
Experts on inhalation hazards and health could play an important role in educating the public and policy makers about tobacco harm reduction (THR), the substitution of lower-risk nicotine products for smoking.
Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.
  • A. Flouris, K. Poulianiti, Y. Koutedakis
  • Medicine
    Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 2012
Smokeless tobacco use and increased cardiovascular mortality among Swedish construction workers.
TLDR
Although the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the use of smokeless tobacco users and smokers face a higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease than nonusers, the excess risk gives cause for preventive actions.
Waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking: direct comparison of toxicant exposure.
Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality
TLDR
The study indicates no apparent risk to human health from e-cigarette emissions based on the compounds analyzed, and for all byproducts measured, electronic cigarettes produce very small exposures relative to tobacco cigarettes.
Is concern about waterpipe tobacco smoking warranted?
TLDR
It is found that current cigarette/cigar/pipe (CCP) smoking status, being aged 40-59, and having low to moderate WT smoking knowledge independently predicted WT smoking prevalence, which shows that CCP smoking status is the strongest predictor of WT smoking.
Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function
TLDR
Regarding short-term usage, the studied e-cigarettes generate smaller changes in lung function but similar nicotinergic impact to tobacco cigarettes, and future research should target the health effects of long-term e-cigarette usage, including the effects of nicotine dosage.
Quantifying the effects of promoting smokeless tobacco as a harm reduction strategy in the USA
TLDR
Promoting smokeless tobacco as a safer alternative to cigarettes is unlikely to result in substantial health benefits at a population level, according to a Monte Carlo simulation of a decision tree model of tobacco initiation and use.
Tobacco-related disease mortality among men who switched from cigarettes to spit tobacco
TLDR
The risks of dying from major tobacco-related diseases were higher among former cigarette smokers who switched to spit tobacco after they stopped smoking than among those who quit using tobacco entirely.
The waterpipe: an emerging global risk for cancer.
  • W. Maziak
  • Medicine, Political Science
    Cancer epidemiology
  • 2013
...
...