Noise performance of frequency modulation Kelvin force microscopy

Abstract

Noise performance of a phase-locked loop (PLL) based frequency modulation Kelvin force microscope (FM-KFM) is assessed. Noise propagation is modeled step by step throughout the setup using both exact closed loop noise gains and an approximation known as "noise gain" from operational amplifier (OpAmp) design that offers the advantage of decoupling the noise… (More)
DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.5.1

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