Nogo and axon regeneration

@article{Schwab2004NogoAA,
  title={Nogo and axon regeneration},
  author={Martin E. Schwab},
  journal={Current Opinion in Neurobiology},
  year={2004},
  volume={14},
  pages={118-124}
}
  • M. Schwab
  • Published 1 February 2004
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Nogo-A is one of several neurite growth inhibitory components present in oligodendrocytes and CNS myelin membranes. Nogo has a crucial role in restricting axonal regeneration and compensatory fibre growth in the injured adult mammalian CNS. Recent studies have shown that in vivo applications of Nogo neutralizing antibodies, peptides blocking the Nogo receptor subunit NgR, or blockers of the postreceptor components Rho-A and ROCK induce long-distance axonal regeneration and compensatory… 
Nogo-A: Its Role in Axon Regeneration
TLDR
The findings over the past two decades are reviewed, which are the key to understanding the significance of the inhibitory protein Nogo-A in axon regeneration.
Inhibition of Nogo: A key strategy to increase regeneration, plasticity and functional recovery of the lesioned central nervous system
TLDR
These studies show that intracerebral application of Nogo‐A‐inactivating reagents leads to enhanced regeneration and compensatory sprouting, structural reorganization or plasticity, and functional recovery as seen in different behavioural analyses.
Defeating inhibition of regeneration by scar and myelin components.
TLDR
Methods to counteract forms of inhibition have been identified, and these treatments promote axon regeneration in the damaged spinal cord, and in some cases recovery of function through enhanced plasticity.
Nogo limits neural plasticity and recovery from injury
TLDR
The expression of Nogo-A and the receptor NgR1 limits the recovery of adult mammals from central nervous system injury and is documented in the restriction of experience-dependent plasticity with maturity, and the stability of synaptic, dendritic and axonal anatomy.
Blocking the Nogo-A Signaling Pathway to Promote Regeneration and Plasticity After Spinal Cord Injury and Stroke
TLDR
Current experimental CNS repair strategies and clinical trials that use reagents which neutralize Nogo-A or suppress Nogo signaling, in particular for spinal cord injury and stroke are summarized, with some results also in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multiple sclerosis (MS).
Repair of the Injured Spinal Cord
TLDR
This review reports on a joint approach of different research groups to develop a therapy applying anti-Nogo-A antibodies to the injured spinal cord.
Silencing of Nogo-A in rat oligodendrocyte cultures enhances process branching
TLDR
A novel role for Nogo-A is suggested in maintaining a restricted branching phenotype in oligodendrocytes process outgrowth, which is a key step towards myelin membrane sheet formation and myelination.
Functions of Nogo proteins and their receptors in the nervous system
  • M. Schwab
  • Biology, Medicine
    Nature Reviews Neuroscience
  • 2010
TLDR
The function of Nogo in the adult CNS is now understood to be that of a negative regulator of neuronal growth, leading to stabilization of the CNS wiring at the expense of extensive plastic rearrangements and regeneration after injury.
Targeting neurite growth inhibitors to induce CNS regeneration.
TLDR
There are several therapeutic approaches to overcome the actions of endogenous neurite growth inhibitors so as to promote CNS regeneration.
Disinhibition of neurite growth to repair the injured adult CNS: Focusing on Nogo
TLDR
Recent advances in the understanding of how the ‘founder molecule’ Nogo-A and other glialderived growth inhibitors restrict the regeneration and repair of disrupted neuronal circuits, thus limiting the functional recovery after CNS injuries are discussed.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 73 REFERENCES
Nogo-A expressed in Schwann cells impairs axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury
TLDR
It is shown that axonal regeneration and functional recovery are impaired after a sciatic nerve crush, and Nogo-A overrides the growth-permissive and -promoting effects of the lesioned peripheral nerve, demonstrating its in vivo potency as an inhibitor of axonal regenerate.
Nogo-C is sufficient to delay nerve regeneration
TLDR
Expression of the Nogo-66 domain by otherwise permissive myelinating cells is sufficient to hinder axonal reextension after trauma and is associated with a decreased recovery rate for motor function after sciatic nerve injury.
Systemic Deletion of the Myelin-Associated Outgrowth Inhibitor Nogo-A Improves Regenerative and Plastic Responses after Spinal Cord Injury
To investigate the role of the myelin-associated protein Nogo-A on axon sprouting and regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS), we generated Nogo-A-deficient mice. Nogo-A knockout (KO)
Nogo-66 receptor antagonist peptide promotes axonal regeneration
TLDR
The Nogo-66(1–40) antagonist peptide (NEP1-40) blocks Nogo or CNS myelin inhibition of axonal outgrowth in vitro, demonstrating that NgR mediates a significant portion of axon outgrowth inhibition by myelin.
Neurobiology: Inhibitor of neurite outgrowth in humans
TLDR
This work has used this bovine sequence to identify the human Nogo gene and has isolated complementary DNA clones encoding three different Nogo isoforms that are potent inhibitors of neurite outgrowth and which may help block the regeneration of the central nervous system in adults.
Nogo-A and Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein Mediate Neurite Growth Inhibition by Antagonistic Regulation of RhoA and Rac1
TLDR
Evidence is provided that the inhibitory effects of both Nogo-A fragments and MAG on neurite outgrowth and oligodendrocyte-mediated growth cone collapse were abolished by inactivating RhoA with C3 transferase or the downstream effector Rho-kinase ROCK withY27632.
Axon Regeneration in Young Adult Mice Lacking Nogo-A/B
TLDR
Nogo-A plays a role in restricting axonal sprouting in the young adult CNS after injury, and recovery of locomotor function is improved in these mice.
Inactivation of Rho Signaling Pathway Promotes CNS Axon Regeneration
TLDR
It is reported that injured axons regrow directly on complex inhibitory substrates when Rho GTPase is inactivated, indicating that targeting signaling mechanisms converging to Rho stimulates axon regeneration on inhibitory CNS substrates.
Nogo-A is a myelin-associated neurite outgrowth inhibitor and an antigen for monoclonal antibody IN-1
TLDR
Cl cloning of nogo A, the rat complementary DNA encoding NI-220/250 is reported, showing that Nogo-A is a potent inhibitor of neurite growth and an IN-1 antigen produced by oligodendrocytes, and may allow the generation of new reagents to enhance CNS regeneration and plasticity.
Identification of the Nogo inhibitor of axon regeneration as a Reticulon protein
TLDR
The IN-1 antibody, which recognizes NI35 and NI250(Nogo), allows moderate degrees of axonal regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord injury, and provides a molecular basis to assess the contribution of Nogo to the failure ofAxonal regeneration in the adult CNS.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...