Knockout of the Nogo-B Gene Attenuates Tumor Growth and Metastasis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma1
BACKGROUND Abnormal proliferation, apoptosis, migration and contraction of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells in airway remodeling in asthma are basically excessive repair responses to a network of inflammatory mediators such as PDGF, but the mechanisms of such responses remain unclear. Nogo-B, a member of the reticulum family 4(RTN4), is known to play a key role in arteriogenesis and tissue repair. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of Nogo-B in airway smooth muscle abnormalities. METHODS A mouse model of chronic asthma was established by repeated OVA inhalation and subjected to Nogo-B expression analysis using immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting. Then, primary human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs) were cultured in vitro and a siRNA interference was performed to knockdown the expression of Nogo-B in the cells. The effects of Nogo-B inhibition on PDGF-induced HBSMCs proliferation, migration and contraction were evaluated. Finally, a proteomic analysis was conducted to unveil the underlying mechanisms responsible for the function of Nogo-B. RESULTS Total Nogo-B expression was approximately 3.08-fold lower in chronic asthmatic mice compared to naïve mice, which was obvious in the smooth muscle layer of the airways. Interference of Nogo-B expression by siRNA resulted nearly 96% reduction in mRNA in cultured HBSMCs. In addition, knockdown of Nogo-B using specific siRNA significantly decreased PDGF-induced migration of HBSMCs by 2.3-fold, and increased the cellular contraction by 16% compared to negative controls, but had limited effects on PDGF-induced proliferation. Furthermore, using proteomic analysis, we demonstrate that the expression of actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5 (ARPC 2/3) decreased and, myosin regulatory light chain 9 isoform a (MYL-9) increased after Nogo-B knockdown. CONCLUSIONS These data define a novel role for Nogo-B in airway remodeling in chronic asthma. Endogenous Nogo-B, which may exert its effects through ARPC 2/3 and MYL-9, is necessary for the migration and contraction of airway smooth muscle cells.