Nogo‐receptor gene activity: Cellular localization and developmental regulation of mRNA in mice and humans

@article{Josephson2002NogoreceptorGA,
  title={Nogo‐receptor gene activity: Cellular localization and developmental regulation of mRNA in mice and humans},
  author={Anna Josephson and Alexandra Trifunovski and Hans Ruedi Widmer and Johan Widenfalk and Lars Olson and Christian Spenger},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Neurology},
  year={2002},
  volume={453}
}
Nogo (reticulon‐4) is a myelin‐associated protein that is expressed in three different splice variants, Nogo‐A, Nogo‐B, and Nogo‐C. Nogo‐A inhibits neurite regeneration in the central nervous system. Messenger RNA encoding Nogo is expressed in oligodendrocytes and central and peripheral neurons, but not in astrocytes or Schwann cells. Nogo is a transmembraneous protein; the extracellular domain is termed Nogo‐66, and a Nogo‐66‐receptor (Nogo‐R) has been identified. We performed in situ… 

Nogo and Nogo‐66 receptor in human and chick: Implications for development and regeneration

It is shown that Nogo‐A and the Nogo receptor (NgR) are developmentally regulated both in chick and human embryos, are first detected at developmental stages when the chick spinal cord regenerates, and are not down‐regulated after injury at permissive stages for regeneration.

Soluble Nogo Receptor Down-regulates Expression of Neuronal Nogo-A to Enhance Axonal Regeneration*

The results indicate that neuronal Nogo-A is an important intermediate in neurite growth dynamics and its expression is regulated by signals related to axonal injury and regeneration, that CNS myelin appears to activate signaling events that mimicAxonal injury, and that NgSR released from QHNgSR may be used to improve recovery after injury.

Nogo A expression in the adult enteric nervous system

The results point to a hitherto unsuspected role for Nogo A in enteric neuronal physiology, as is seen in developing neurons of the CNS, which is present in both neuronal cell bodies and axons.

Genetic deletion of the Nogo receptor does not reduce neurite inhibition in vitro or promote corticospinal tract regeneration in vivo.

NgR is not essential for mediating inhibitory signals from CNS myelin, at least in the neurons tested, whereas p75(NTR) plays a central role in this response.

Identification of Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) and homologous genes in fish.

Synteny between fish and human, comparable intron-exon structures, and phylogenetic analyses provide convincing evidence that the true fish orthologs were identified.

The Nogo receptor, its ligands and axonal regeneration in the spinal cord; A review

It is not clear whether antibodies against Nogo act on oligodendrocytes/myelin or by binding to neuronal Nogo, or whether they can stimulate regeneration of ascending axons in the spinal cord, most of which express little or no NgR.
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References

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In situ hybridization using rat and human probes complementary to a Nogo-A-specific sequence and a sequence shared by all known Nogo transcripts has demonstrated widespread expression of nogo mRNA in the fetal, developing and adult nervous system of rat and man.

Identification of a receptor mediating Nogo-66 inhibition of axonal regeneration

It is shown that the extracellular domain of Nogo (Nogo-66) inhibits axonal extension, but does not alter non-neuronal cell morphology, and a multivalent form of the N terminus of Noga-A affects the morphology of both neurons and other cell types.

Nogo-A is a myelin-associated neurite outgrowth inhibitor and an antigen for monoclonal antibody IN-1

Cl cloning of nogo A, the rat complementary DNA encoding NI-220/250 is reported, showing that Nogo-A is a potent inhibitor of neurite growth and an IN-1 antigen produced by oligodendrocytes, and may allow the generation of new reagents to enhance CNS regeneration and plasticity.

Identification of the Nogo inhibitor of axon regeneration as a Reticulon protein

The IN-1 antibody, which recognizes NI35 and NI250(Nogo), allows moderate degrees of axonal regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord injury, and provides a molecular basis to assess the contribution of Nogo to the failure ofAxonal regeneration in the adult CNS.

Retrograde Regulation of Growth-Associated Gene Expression in Adult Rat Purkinje Cells by Myelin-Associated Neurite Growth Inhibitory Proteins

The inhibitory activity of the IN-1 antigen on axon growth is not restricted to the control of growth cone motility but also involves a retrograde regulation of gene expression in adult central neurons.

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The purification of a myelin protein to apparent homogeneity from bovine spinal cord which exerts a potent neurite outgrowth inhibitory effect on PC12 cells and chick dorsal root ganglion cells, induces collapse of growth cones of chick dorsalRoot ganglions, and also inhibits the spreading of 3T3 fibroblasts is reported.

Soluble Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein Released from Damaged White Matter Inhibits Axonal Regeneration

It is shown that factors secreted from damaged white matter inhibit axonal regeneration and that the majority of inhibitory activity can be accounted for by dMAG, which is likely to play an important role in preventing regeneration, immediately after injury before the glial scar forms.

Bovine CNS Myelin Contains Neurite Growth-Inhibitory Activity Associated with Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans

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This work has used this bovine sequence to identify the human Nogo gene and has isolated complementary DNA clones encoding three different Nogo isoforms that are potent inhibitors of neurite outgrowth and which may help block the regeneration of the central nervous system in adults.

Oligodendrocytes and CNS myelin are nonpermissive substrates for neurite growth and fibroblast spreading in vitro

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