Nodes in the Bitcoin Network: Comparative Measurement Study and Survey

  title={Nodes in the Bitcoin Network: Comparative Measurement Study and Survey},
  author={Sehyun Park and Seongwon Im and Youhwan Seol and Jeongyeup Paek},
  journal={IEEE Access},
Bitcoin is a decentralized digital currency that has gained significant attention and growth in recent years. Unlike traditional currencies, Bitcoin does not rely on a centralized authority to control the supply, distribution, and verification of the validity of transactions. Instead, Bitcoin relies on a peer-to-peer (P2P) network of volunteers to distribute pending transactions and confirmed blocks, to verify transactions, and to collectively implement a replicated ledger that everyone agrees… 
Empirical Analysis of Bitcoin network (2016-2020)
The local topology and geometry of the Bitcoin network during its first decade of existence is explored to explore how the social and anti-social tendencies in the user base of Bitcoin affect its evolution.
On the Estimation of the Number of Unreachable Peers in the Bitcoin P2P Network by Observation of Peer Announcements
This paper proposes the PAL (Passive Announcement Listening) method which gives an estimate of the number of unreachable peers by observing ADDR messages that announce active IP addresses in the network and uses the method to analyze data from a long-term measurement of the Bitcoin P2P network.
Short Paper: What Peer Announcements Tell Us About the Size of the Bitcoin P2P Network
The Passive Announcement Listening (PAL) method is proposed that gives an estimate of the number of unreachable peers in the Bitcoin P2P network by observing peer announcements in addr messages and shows that peer announcements ‘leak’ even more information than the size of the network.
Root Cause Analyses for the Deteriorating Bitcoin Network Synchronization
A root cause analysis is performed to study four factors that affect network synchronization: the unreachable nodes, the addressing protocol, the information relaying protocol, and the network churn to propose improvements in Bitcoin Core to increase network synchronization.
Less is More: Fairness in Wide-Area Proof-of-Work Blockchain Networks
The problem of topology design for optimizing mining rewards in a wide-area blockchain network that uses a Proof-of-Work protocol for consensus is considered, and it is shown that increasing network connectivity is beneficial to a miner only up to a point after which the miner’s rewards degrade.
Difficulty of Decentralized Structure Due to Rational User Behavior on Blockchain
By monitoring Bitcoin and Ethereum over a long comparative period of 455 days as a system based on the main blockchains actually used, it is demonstrated that it is difficult to balance the distributed structure owing to the rational behavior of users.
On the Peer Degree Distribution of the Bitcoin P2P Network
A recent spam wave of IP addresses in the Bitcoin P2P network allowed us to estimate the degree distribution of reachable peers and it is shown that simply counting IP addresses overestimates the number of Reachable peers by 15 %.
Modeling Coordinated vs. P2P Mining: An Analysis of Inefficiency and Inequality in Proof-of-Work Blockchains
This paper proposes a simple model of a proof-of-work blockchain with latencies for both the P2P and the coordinated settings, and derives a closed-form expression for the efficiency in the coordinated setting with an arbitrary number of miners and arbitrary latencies, both for the overall system and for each individual miner.
Distributed Atomic Swap on Cryptocurrencies
The study aims to develop a distributed exchange model on blockchain using smart contracts for atomic swap method, and payment channels technology for liquidity to create a liquid decentralized stock market model as much as central exchanges.


The Bitcoin P2P Network
Measurements of the P2P network can be considered as a lower bound for Bitcoin usage, and they provide interesting results on the adoption of such virtual currency.
Blockchain inefficiency in the Bitcoin peers network
Investigating Bitcoin network observing transactions broadcasted into the network during a week from 04/05/2016 and then monitoring their inclusion into the blockchain during the following seven months reveals a great inefficiency in the Bitcoin system.
Bitcoin Network Measurements for Simulation Validation and Parameterization
The transactions propagation delay in the real Bitcoin network is measured and how it is affected by the number of nodes and network topology enables a precise validation of any simulation model of the Bitcoin network.
Discovering Bitcoin ’ s Public Topology and Influential Nodes
A “decloaking” method is introduced to find influential nodes in the topology that are well connected to a mining pool, and finds that in contrast to Bitcoin’s idealized vision of spreading mining responsibility to each node, mining pools are prevalent and hidden.
Information propagation in the Bitcoin network
This paper analyzes how Bitcoin uses a multi-hop broadcast to propagate transactions and blocks through the network to update the ledger replicas, and verifies the conjecture that the propagation delay in the network is the primary cause for blockchain forks.
Deanonymisation of Clients in Bitcoin P2P Network
This work presents an efficient method to deanonymize Bitcoin users, which allows to link user pseudonyms to the IP addresses where the transactions are generated and shows that a natural countermeasure of using Tor or other anonymity services can be cut-off by abusing anti-DoS countermeasures of the Bitcoin network.
A Bitcoin Model for Evaluation of Clustering to Improve Propagation Delay in Bitcoin Network
  • M. Sallal, Gareth Owenson, M. Adda
  • Computer Science, Business
    2016 IEEE Intl Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) and IEEE Intl Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC) and 15th Intl Symposium on Distributed Computing and Applications for Business Engineering (DCABES)
  • 2016
Evaluation of the proposed Bitcoin Clustering Based Super Node protocol as a mechanism to speed up information propagation in Bitcoin network is presented, and results show that the presented clustering protocol is able to reduce the transaction propagation delay with a reasonable proportion.
Misbehavior in Bitcoin: A Study of Double-Spending and Accountability
This work proposes a new and lightweight countermeasure that enables the detection of double-spending attacks in fast transactions in Bitcoin and provides accountability and privacy definition for Bitcoin, and investigates analytically and empirically the privacy and accountability provisions in Bitcoin.
Tampering with the Delivery of Blocks and Transactions in Bitcoin
It is shown that current scalability measures adopted by Bitcoin come at odds with the security of the system, and that an adversary can exploit these measures in order to effectively delay the propagation of transactions and blocks to specific nodes for a considerable amount of time---without causing a network partitioning in the system.