Nodal points and the eye.

@article{Simpson2022NodalPA,
  title={Nodal points and the eye.},
  author={MichaelA. Simpson},
  journal={Applied optics},
  year={2022},
  volume={61 10},
  pages={
          2797-2804
        }
}
Nodal points are defined using parallel object and image rays at very small angles to the optical axis, and Johann Listing described them when characterizing the eye in 1845. They are only distinct from principal points when there is a refractive index difference, but Reginald Clay used the term "nodal slide" in 1904 for equipment that uses lens rotation when measuring a lens focal length in air. Over time, sketches of nodal rays at large angles have become common, and these perhaps appear to… 
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