Nodal Flow and the Generation of Left-Right Asymmetry

@article{Hirokawa2006NodalFA,
  title={Nodal Flow and the Generation of Left-Right Asymmetry},
  author={Nobutaka Hirokawa and Yosuke Tanaka and Yasushi Okada and Sen Takeda},
  journal={Cell},
  year={2006},
  volume={125},
  pages={33-45}
}
The establishment of left-right asymmetry in mammals is a good example of how multiple cell biological processes coordinate in the formation of a basic body plan. The leftward movement of fluid at the ventral node, called nodal flow, is the central process in symmetry breaking on the left-right axis. Nodal flow is autonomously generated by the rotation of cilia that are tilted toward the posterior on cells of the ventral node. These cilia are built by transport via the KIF3 motor complex. How… Expand
Left-right determination: involvement of molecular motor KIF3, cilia, and nodal flow.
TLDR
Evidence suggests that the leftward movement of sheathed lipidic particles, called nodal vesicular parcels (NVPs), may result in the activation of the noncanonical hedgehog signaling pathway, an asymmetric elevation in intracellular Ca(2+) and changes in gene expression. Expand
Observation of nodal cilia movement and measurement of nodal flow.
TLDR
This chapter reviews techniques for the observation of nodal cilia movement and nodal flow in living vertebrate embryos. Expand
Fluid Dynamic Mechanism Responsible for Breaking the Left-Right Symmetry of the Human Body: The Nodal Flow
A left-right (LR) asymmetric body plan is crucial for the development of the human body. The past decade has seen rapid progress in our understanding of the LR symmetry-breaking process in vertebrateExpand
Two rotating cilia in the node cavity are sufficient to break left-right symmetry in the mouse embryo.
TLDR
The results suggest the existence of a highly sensitive system in the node that is able to sense an extremely weak unidirectional flow, and may favour a model in which the flow is sensed as a mechanical force. Expand
Cilia, KIF3 molecular motor and nodal flow.
TLDR
Identification of putative receptors and signaling molecules suggests a link between the signaling molecules delivered by the nodal flow, and downstream signaling in the cells surrounding the nodsal cavity and the lateral plate mesoderm. Expand
Fluid mechanics of nodal flow due to embryonic primary cilia
TLDR
Using the approximation of resistive force theory, it is shown how the flow is produced and calculate the optimal configuration to cause maximum flow, showing excellent agreement with in vitro measurements and numerical simulation, and paralleling recent analogue experiments. Expand
Cilia-Driven Leftward Flow Determines Laterality in Xenopus
TLDR
It is shown that a cilia-driven leftward flow precedes asymmetric nodal expression in the frog Xenopus and injection of 1.5% methylcellulose into the archenteron preventedleftward flow and resulted in laterality defects, demonstrating that the flow itself was required for asymmetric gene expression and organ placement. Expand
Translation of anterior-posterior polarity into left-right polarity in the mouse embryo.
TLDR
The breaking of left-right symmetry in the mouse involves unidirectional fluid flow and posterior positioning of the basal body is determined by planar polarization involving noncanonical Wnt signaling. Expand
Left-right asymmetry in Xenopus laevis : functional dissection of leftward flow
Despite their external bilateral symmetry, vertebrates have a conserved left right (LR) asymmetry of their inner organs. For all vertebrates, it is well-known that the asymmetric organogenesis isExpand
Morphogenesis of the node and notochord: The cellular basis for the establishment and maintenance of left–right asymmetry in the mouse
  • Jeffrey D. Lee, K. Anderson
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists
  • 2008
TLDR
An overview of the current understanding and unresolved questions about the regulation of ciliary motility and node structure in the mouse embryo is provided. Expand
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