A genomic view of the NOD-like receptor family in teleost fish: identification of a novel NLR subfamily in zebrafish
The intracellular Nod-like proteins or receptors are a family of sensors of intracellularly encountered microbial motifs and 'danger signals' that have emerged as being critical components of the innate immune responses and of inflammation in mammals. Several Nod-like receptors, including Nod1, Nod2, NALP3, Ipaf and Naip, are strongly associated with host responses to intracellular invasion by bacteria or the intracellular presence of specific bacterial products. An additional key function of Nod-like receptors is in inflammatory conditions, which has been emphasized by the identification of several different mutations in the genes encoding Nod1, Nod2 and NALP3 that are associated with susceptibility to inflammatory disorders. Those and other issues related to the Nod-like receptor family are discussed here.