No stress – no whiplash?

  title={No stress – no whiplash?
  author={William H. M. Castro and Susan Meyer and M. E. R. Becke and C. G. Nentwig and M F Hein and B. I. Ercan and Silvia Thomann and U. Wessels and Alexander Du Chesne},
  journal={International Journal of Legal Medicine},
Abstract Volunteer studies of experimental, low-velocity rear-end collisions have shown a percentage of subjects to report short-lived symptoms, but the cause of these symptoms remains unknown. It is unclear whether the symptoms arise from biomechanical stress causing injury or from psychological stress causing symptom expectation and anxiety. Similarly, the cause of symptoms remains obscure in virtually all “whiplash” patients because it is impossible to identify acute pathology in many cases… 
Correlation between exposure to biomechanical stress and Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD).
  • W. Castro
  • Education
    Pain research & management
  • 2003
It is shown that from a biomechanical point of view, a bumper car collision is comparable to a normal car collision, and low velocity collisions can be defined as those where Dv is below 15 km/h.
Whiplash injuries in Finland: the situation 3 years later
The influence of whiplash injuries on the perceived condition of health 3 years after injury and the importance of early recognition of risk factors for long-term disability and the primary treatment and rehabilitation procedures are illuminated.
The Effect of Trunk Flexion in Healthy Volunteers in Rear Whiplash-Type Impacts
If the head is rotated out of neutral posture at the time of rear impact, the injury risk tends to be greater for the sternocleidomastoid muscle contralateral to the side of rotation, and measures to prevent whiplash injury may have to account for the asymmetric response.
Electromyographic and Kinematic Exploration of Whiplash-Type Neck Perturbations in Left Lateral Collisions
Because the muscular component of the head-neck complex plays a central role in the abatement of higher acceleration levels, it may be a primary site of injury in the whiplash phenomenon in lateral collisions.
Acute and chronic whiplash disorders--a review.
Examination of acute and chronic whiplash-associated disorders to facilitate assessment, treatment and rehabilitation for further research and evidence-based practices finds adequate information, advice and pain medication together with active interventions might be more effective in the acute stage.
An examination of coping styles and expectations for whiplash injury in Germany: comparison with Canadian data
There was no correlation between expectations and coping style among German subjects, a finding that differs from Canadian studies, and in Germany, the lack of expectation for chronic pain may be protective from the effect of passive coping styles.
Whiplash, real or not real? A review and new concept
The purpose of this chapter is to overview the scientific data regarding the presence of an injury mechanism as a consequence of the whiplash trauma, remark the unexpectedness of the accident as essential, and present a new concept according to which WAD symptoms are the result of a mismatch between aberrant information from the cervical spinal cord and the Information from the vestibular and visual systems.
Whiplash injuries in Finland: a prospective 1-year follow-up study.
In a considerable proportion of collision patients, whiplash injury does result in significant impairment which can last as long as a year after the accident, and the WAD classification predicts the duration of work disability and the long-term health damage caused by the injury.
Whiplash: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis
The scope of the current review is confined to the Quebec guidelines for WAD grades 1–3 but excludes grade 4 (neck complaints and fracture or dislocation).


Do "whiplash injuries" occur in low-speed rear impacts?
The "limit of harmlessness" for stresses arising from rear-end impacts with regard to the velocity changes lies between 10 and 15 km/h, and the stress occurring in vehicle rear- end collisions can be compared to the stress in bumper car collisions.
Pain after whiplash: a prospective controlled inception cohort study
In a country were there is no preconceived notion of chronic pain arising from rear end collisions, and thus no fear of long term disability, and usually no involvement of the therapeutic community, insurance companies, or litigation, symptoms after an acute whiplash injury are self limiting, brief, and do not seem to evolve to the so-called late whiplASH syndrome.
A prospective study of 39 patients with whiplash injury
In this study, long‐lasting distress and poor outcome were more related to the occurrence of stressful life events than to clinical and paraclinical findings.
The Effect of Litigation Status on Adjustment to Whiplash Injury
The rather robust effect of litigation status on pain reports suggests that secondary gain does not figure prominently in influencing the functionality of these patients, and the potential mediational role of the stress of litigation is discussed.
[Whiplash-associated disorders].
  • P. Schmid
  • Medicine
    Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift
  • 1999
Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) represent a class of clinical complaints which commonly result from rear-end car accidents. An automobile collision can generate major forces which are transferred
Cognitive function and distress after common whiplash injury
  • A. Smed
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Acta neurologica Scandinavica
  • 1997
Stressful life events unrelated to the accident and a high level of distress 1 month postinjury may augment the risk of “late whiplash syndrome”.
Cognitive complaints in patients after whiplash injury: the impact of malingering
The prevalence of malingering or cognitive underperformance in late post-whiplash patients is substantial, particularly in litigation contexts, and it is not warranted to explain the mild cognitive disorders of whiplash Patients in terms of brain damage, as some authors have done.