No large population of unbound or wide-orbit Jupiter-mass planets

  title={No large population of unbound or wide-orbit Jupiter-mass planets},
  author={Przemek Mr{\'o}z and Andrzej Udalski and Jan Skowron and Radosław Poleski and Szymon Kozłowski and Michał K. Szymański and Igor Soszyński and Łukasz Wyrzykowski and Paweł Pietrukowicz and Krzysztof Ulaczyk and Dorota M. Skowron and Michał Pawlak},
Planet formation theories predict that some planets may be ejected from their parent systems as result of dynamical interactions and other processes. Unbound planets can also be formed through gravitational collapse, in a way similar to that in which stars form. A handful of free-floating planetary-mass objects have been discovered by infrared surveys of young stellar clusters and star-forming regions as well as wide-field surveys, but these studies are incomplete for objects below five Jupiter… 
Two new free-floating or wide-orbit planets from microlensing
Planet formation theories predict the existence of free-floating planets that have been ejected from their parent systems. Although they emit little or no light, they can be detected during
A Terrestrial-mass Rogue Planet Candidate Detected in the Shortest-timescale Microlensing Event
Some low-mass planets are expected to be ejected from their parent planetary systems during early stages of planetary system formation. According to planet-formation theories, such as the core
A Free-floating or Wide-orbit Planet in the Microlensing Event OGLE-2019-BLG-0551
High-cadence observations of the Galactic bulge by the microlensing surveys led to the discovery of a handful of extremely short-timescale microlensing events that can be attributed to free-floating
Stellar Flybys Interrupting Planet–Planet Scattering Generates Oort Planets
Wide-orbit exoplanets are starting to be detected, and planetary formation models are under development to understand their properties. We propose a population of "Oort" planets around other stars,
A Neptune-mass Free-floating Planet Candidate Discovered by Microlensing Surveys
Current microlensing surveys are sensitive to free-floating planets down to Earth-mass objects. All published microlensing events attributed to unbound planets were identified based on their short
Probing Planets in Extragalactic Galaxies Using Quasar Microlensing.
Previously, planets have been detected only in the Milky Way galaxy. Here, we show that quasar microlensing provides a means to probe extragalactic planets in the lens galaxy, by studying the
Capture of free-floating planets by planetary systems
Evidence of exoplanets with orbits that are misaligned with the spin of the host star may suggest that not all bound planets were born in the protoplanetary disk of their current planetary system.
Ejection of close-in super-Earths around low-mass stars in the giant impact stage
Context. Earth-sized planets were observed in close-in orbits around M dwarfs. While more and more planets are expected to be uncovered around M dwarfs, theories of their formation and dynamical
A rich population of free-floating planets in the Upper Scorpius young stellar association
The nature and origin of free-floating planets (FFPs) are still largely unconstrained because of a lack of large homogeneous samples to enable a statistical analysis of their properties. So far, most
Masses for free-floating planets and dwarf planets
The mass and distance functions of free-floating planets (FFPs) would give major insights into the formation and evolution of planetary systems, including any systematic differences between those in


Unbound or distant planetary mass population detected by gravitational microlensing
  • T. K. D. P. I. A. F. C. S. A. K. J. B. Y. P. M. A. W. Sumi Kamiya Bennett Bond Abe Botzler Fukui Furusaw, T. Sumi, K. Ulaczyk
  • Physics, Geology
  • 2011
The discovery of a population of unbound or distant Jupiter-mass objects is reported, which are almost twice as common as main-sequence stars, based on two years of gravitational microlensing survey observations towards the Galactic Bulge.
The Demographics of Rocky Free-Floating Planets and their Detectability by WFIRST
Planets are thought to form via accretion from a remnant disk of gas and solids around a newly formed star. During this process material in the disk either remains bound to the star as part of either
We show that Earth-mass planets orbiting stars in the Galactic disk and bulge can be detected by monitoring microlensed stars in the Galactic bulge. The star and its planet act as a binary lens which
Gravitational scattering as a possible origin for giant planets at small stellar distances
An alternative model for planetary migration that can account for two large orbital eccentricities of giant planets that are difficult to reconcile with a tidal-linkage model is described.
Discovery of Young, Isolated Planetary Mass Objects in the σ Orionis Star Cluster
We present the discovery by optical and near-infrared imaging of an extremely red, low-luminosity population of isolated objects in the young, nearby stellar cluster around the multiple, massive star
Constraining the Frequency of Free-Floating Planets from a Synthesis of Microlensing, Radial Velocity, and Direct Imaging Survey Results
A microlensing survey by Sumi et al. (2011) exhibits an overabundance of short-timescale events (STEs; t_E ~10 AU) and free-floating planets. Assuming these STEs are indeed due to planetary-mass
Free-floating planets from core accretion theory: microlensing predictions
We calculate the microlensing event rate and typical time-scales for the free-floating planet (FFP) population that is predicted by the core accretion theory of planet formation. The event rate is
Direct imaging constraints on planet populations detected by microlensing
Results from gravitational microlensing suggested the existence of a large population of free-floating planetary mass objects. The main conclusion from this work was partly based on constraints from
Planet–planet scattering alone cannot explain the free-floating planet population
Recent gravitational microlensing observations predict a vast population of free-floating giant planets that outnumbers main-sequence stars almost twofold. A frequently invoked mechanism for
Toward a Deterministic Model of Planetary Formation. VII. Eccentricity Distribution of Gas Giants
The ubiquity of planets and diversity of planetary systems reveal that planet formation encompasses many complex and competing processes. In this series of papers, we develop and upgrade a population