No evidence of morphine analgesia to noxious shock in the shore crab, Carcinus maenas

@article{Barr2011NoEO,
  title={No evidence of morphine analgesia to noxious shock in the shore crab, Carcinus maenas
},
  author={S. Barr and R. Elwood},
  journal={Behavioural Processes},
  year={2011},
  volume={86},
  pages={340-344}
}
A number of criteria have been suggested for testing if pain occurs in animals, and these include an analgesic effect of opiates (Bateson, 1991). Morphine reduces responses to noxious stimuli in crustaceans but also reduces responsiveness in a non-pain context. Here we use a paradigm in which shore crabs receive a shock in a preferred dark shelter but not if they remain in an unpreferred light area. Analgesia should thus enhance movement to the preferred dark area because they should not… Expand
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