No Evidence for Enhancement of Spatial Ability with Elevated Prenatal Androgen Exposure in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: A Meta-Analysis

  title={No Evidence for Enhancement of Spatial Ability with Elevated Prenatal Androgen Exposure in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: A Meta-Analysis},
  author={Marcia L. Collaer and Melissa Hines},
  journal={Archives of Sexual Behavior},
Spatial abilities contribute to life and occupational competencies, and certain spatial skills differ, on average, between males and females, typically favoring males when differences occur. Factors contributing to spatial skills could include prenatal as well as experiential/cultural influences, with biological and social influences likely interacting and difficult to disentangle. This meta-analysis examined the potential influence of prenatal androgen exposure on spatial skill by examining… 

To What Extent are Prenatal Androgens Involved in the Development of Male Homosexuality in Humans?

Some studies suggest that physical measures affected by prenatal androgens, including the index-to-ring finger ratio, growth indices, and facial structure, are more "feminine" in gay men, but many of these results are equivocal and may be confounded by other factors.

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Clinical and neuroimaging data obtained in patients with altered androgen levels/actions point to an important role of (prenatal) androgens in inducing typical male neural and psychosexual characteristics in humans, and there appears to be no obvious role for estrogens in masculinizing the human brain.

Digit ratio (2D:4D) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH): Systematic literature review and meta-analysis

A systematic review of 2D:4D in people with congenital adrenal hyperplasia found no evidence to suggest the right-left difference in 2D:[R-L]) is associated with prenatal sex hormone exposure, and the effect size had reduced by 46.70%.

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I have always been fond of numbers, statistics, and mathematics although I am not very good at the latter two. As a child, with my friends, we created a “a league of our own” baseball world,



Spatial Ability and Prenatal Androgens: Meta-Analyses of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Studies

Meta-analyses of published literature and unpublished results to determine if either of these indicators of prenatal androgens predicts performance on spatial tasks that show a male advantage indicated that females with CAH perform better on these spatial tasks, and CAH males perform worse, than do controls.

Early androgen effects on spatial and mechanical abilities: evidence from congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Findings indicate that early androgens influence spatial and mechanical abilities, and that androgen effects on abilities may occur in part through effects on sex-typed activity interests.

Prenatal androgen exposure alters girls' responses to information indicating gender-appropriate behaviour

It is reported that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally, because they have the genetic condition congenital adrenal hyperplasia, show changes in processes related to self-socialization of gender-related behaviour, and this suggests that some of the behavioural effects of prenatal androgen exposure might be subject to alteration by postnatal socialization processes.

Spatial ability in androgen-deficient men.

The impairment in spatial ability in men with the idiopathic form of hypogonadotropic hypogOnadism, the lack of such an impairment inMen with the acquired form, and the failure to exogenous androgens to correct the deficits in the idiospecific form suggest that androgens exert a permanent organizing influence on the brain before or at puberty in boys.

Sex-typed toy play behavior correlates with the degree of prenatal androgen exposure assessed by CYP21 genotype in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

The results support the view that prenatal androgen exposure has a direct organizational effect on the human brain to determine certain aspects of sex-typed behavior.

Early androgen exposure and human gender development

The postnatal surge in testosterone in male infants, sometimes called mini-puberty, may provide a more accessible opportunity for measuring early androgen exposure during typical development, with some promising results relating testosterone during the first few months of postnatal life to later gender-typical play behavior.

Cognitive Outcome in Adult Women Affected by Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

The findings provide additional support for the conclusion that, in adult women with CAH, previous prenatal androgen exposure does not enhance spatial abilities, impair verbal abilities nor alter hand preferences in a long-lasting way.