Nitrogen in Agriculture: Balancing the Cost of an Essential Resource

  title={Nitrogen in Agriculture: Balancing the Cost of an Essential Resource},
  author={G. Philip Robertson and Peter M. Vitousek},
  journal={Annual Review of Environment and Resources},
Nitrogen (N) is central to living systems, and its addition to agricultural cropping systems is an essential facet of modern crop management and one of the major reasons that crop production has kept pace with human population growth. The benefits of N added to cropping systems come, however, at well-documented environmental costs: Increased coastal hypoxia, atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), reactive N gases in the troposphere, and N deposition onto forests and other natural areas are some of… 

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