Nitrogen Control in Cyanobacteria

  title={Nitrogen Control in Cyanobacteria},
  author={Antonia Herrero and Alicia M. Muro-Pastor and Enrique Flores},
  journal={Journal of Bacteriology},
  pages={411 - 425}
Nitrogen is a quantitatively important bioelement which is incorporated into the biosphere through assimilatory processes carried out by microorganisms and plants. Numerous nitrogencontaining compounds can be used by different organisms as sources of nitrogen. These include, for instance, inorganic ions like nitrate or ammonium and simple organic compounds like urea, amino acids, and some nitrogen-containing bases. Additionally, many bacteria are capable of fixing N 2. Nitrogen control is a… 

Nitrogen assimilation and nitrogen control in cyanobacteria.

The expression of many nitrogen assimilation genes is subjected to regulation being activated by the nitrogen-control transcription factor NtcA, which is autoregulatory and whose activity appears to be influenced by 2-oxoglutarate and the signal transduction protein P(II).

Genetic responses to carbon and nitrogen availability in Anabaena.

The mechanisms of assimilation of ammonium, nitrate, urea and N2 , the latter involving heterocyst differentiation, are summarized and aspects of CO2 assimilation that involves a carbon concentration mechanism are described.

Nitrogen Availability Affects the Metabolic Profile in Cyanobacteria

It is concluded that the amounts and biosynthetic rate of cyanobacterial metabolites varies depending on the type of nitrogen, and the mechanism of nitrogen assimilation in the GS-GOGAT cycle differs between NaNO3 and NH4Cl.

Effect of Nitrogen Source on Cyanophycin Synthesis in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6308

Nitrogen is incorporated into cyanophycin at different rates and to different extents, depending on the source of nitrogen (ammonium or nitrate) and whether the cells are first starved for nitrogen.

Nitrogen Fixation Outside and Inside Plant Tissues

Nitrogen is one of the most important elements in biological systems, comprising the main building blocks of nucleic acids, enzymes and proteins among its multiple functions. In nature, it exists

Cyanobacterial growth and cyanophycin production with urea and ammonium as nitrogen source

Cyanobacteria were expected to overcome phosphorus (P) limitation in urine given their ability to store an N-rich polymer called cyanophycin, but it was found that the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp.

Proteomic and cellular views of Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 adaptation to nitrogen depletion.

Proteomic and cellular analysis of Arthrospira sp.

Heterocyst Differentiation and Nitrogen Fixation in Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria face the difficult problem of fixing nitrogen while generating oxygen. Some solve this problem by storing carbohydrate during the day and using the stored material to fuel nitrogen

Nitrogen metabolism in cyanobacteria: metabolic and molecular control, growth consequences and biotechnological applications

Why a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the partitioning of carbon and nitrogen towards growth or storage would increase the biotechnological potential of these organisms is highlighted.



Cyanobacterial Nitrogen Assimilation Genes and NtcA-Dependent Control of Gene Expression

Current knowledge, at the genetic level, of the pathways of assimilation of ammonium, nitrate (and nitrite) and dinitrogen in the cyanobacteria are summarized and what is known about the molecular mechanism underlying repression by ammonium in these organisms is described.

Nitrogen control in bacteria.

The ubiquity of the nitrogen regulation systems described in the enterics extend to many other genera, at least in gram-negative organisms are shown and those areas and groups of organisms about which there is much still to learn are identified.

Genetic regulation of nitrogen metabolism in the fungi.

  • G. Marzluf
  • Biology
    Microbiology and molecular biology reviews : MMBR
  • 1997
In the fungi, nitrogen metabolism is controlled by a complex genetic regulatory circuit which ensures the preferential use of primary nitrogen sources and also confers the ability to use many

Regulation of nitrogen metabolism in Bacillus subtilis: vive la différence!

Examination of GlnR‐ and TnrA‐regulated gene expression suggests that these proteins allow the cell to adapt to growth during nitrogen‐limited conditions, and may reflect the fact that the catabolism of amino acids produced by proteolysis during sporulation and germination provides the cell with substrates for energy production and macromolecular synthesis.

Molecular mechanism for the operation of nitrogen control in cyanobacteria.

In cyanobacteria, ammonium exerts a negative regulation of the expression of proteins involved in the assimilation of nitrogen sources alternative to ammonium. In Synechococcus, mRNA levels of genes

Ammonium/Methylammonium Permeases of a Cyanobacterium

Three putativeamt genes that are found in the recently published complete sequence of the chromosome of strain PCC 6803 were inactivated by insertion of antibiotic resistance-encoding gene-cassettes and the corresponding mutant strains were impaired in uptake of [14C]methylammonium.

A second nitrogenase in vegetative cells of a heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium.

Differences between the two nif clusters suggest that the nitrogenase that is expressed in heterocysts is developmentally regulated while the other is regulated by environmental factors.

Regulation of nitrate reductase levels in the cyanobacteria Anacystis nidulans, Anabaena sp. strain 7119, and Nostoc sp. strain 6719

In the unicellular species Anacystis nidulans, nitrate reductase was repressed in the presence of ammonium but de novo enzyme synthesis took place in media containing either nitrate or not nitrogen source, indicating that nitrate was not required as an obligate inducer.

Regulation by cyanate of the genes involved in carbon and nitrogen assimilation in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942

Findings suggested that cyanate may act as a regulator of the ammonium-responsive genes involved in carbon and nitrogen assimilation in the cyanobacterium.