Nitric oxide mediates a therapeutic effect of nicotine in ulcerative colitis

@article{Green2000NitricOM,
  title={Nitric oxide mediates a therapeutic effect of nicotine in ulcerative colitis},
  author={J. T. Green and C. E. Richardson and R. W. Marshall and Jonathan Rhodes and H. C. Mckirdy and Gareth A. O. Thomas and G. T. Williams},
  journal={Alimentary Pharmacology \& Therapeutics},
  year={2000},
  volume={14}
}
Ulcerative colitis is a condition of nonsmokers in which nicotine is of therapeutic benefit. 

Transdermal Nicotine as a Treatment Option for Ulcerative Colitis: A Review

TLDR
It was found that transdermal nicotine in combination with conventional therapy was more beneficial than individual treatment with either and further controlled studies evaluating the appropriate dosage for remission and maintenance treatment needs to be done.

Impaired capsaicin and neurokinin‐evoked colonic motility in inflammatory bowel disease

TLDR
Comparing neuromuscular function in normal and IBD‐affected colon in vitro was compared, with emphasis on inhibitory enteric nerves, sensory neuropeptides and stimulation of axon collaterals.

Reply—nicotine‐induced NO release in colitis

TLDR
Green's densings takes a step forward in the understanding of the mechanism of action of nicotine in ulcerative colitis, but there is still a long way to go if considering the long-term effects of nicotine therapy.

Mechanisms of Disease: nicotine—a review of its actions in the context of gastrointestinal disease

TLDR
The actions of nicotine are complex; it is likely that its effects on the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract and immune system interact with other risk factors, such as genetic susceptibility, to influence disease outcomes.

Smoking in inflammatory bowel diseases: good, bad or ugly?

TLDR
The role of smoking in inflammatory bowel diseases is reviewed, finding that smoking cessation aggravates ulcerative colitis and improves CD, and smoking increases the risk of developing CD and worsens its course, increasing the need for steroids, immunosuppressants and re-operations.

The pharmacological actions of nicotine on the gastrointestinal tract.

  • W. WuC. Cho
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of pharmacological sciences
  • 2004
TLDR
Findings of clinical trials give promising results on the use of nicotine as an adjuvant therapy for UC and the beneficial effect of nicotine on UC seems to be mediated through multiple mechanisms.

Effect of smoking and transdermal nicotine on colonic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in ulcerative colitis.

TLDR
The presence of nA ChRs in colonic epithelium may be pertinent to the beneficial effect of nicotine in UC, but since neither smoking nor nicotine treatment is associated with any change in the expression of epithelial alpha3 nAChRs, the effect may be due to functional changes in the receptor.

Medical treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  • U. Mahadevan
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • 2004
TLDR
The efficacy, optimal usage, and adverse events profile of agents such as 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, azathioprine, and cyclosporine will be discussed and an algorithm for their use will be developed.

Cigarette smoking and inflammation revisited

Colonic and Anorectal Motility in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

TLDR
Evidence in the literature reports motility abnormalities in patients with inflammatory bowel disorders, and different factors, either direct or indirect, of muscles and nerves can produce alteration of gut functions through the involvement of endocrine and neural networks.

References

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Nicotine enemas for active ulcerative colitis—a pilot study

Since transdermal nicotine is of value in the treatment of active ulcerative colitis but is often associated with side‐effects, an alternative in the form of topical therapy with nicotine enemas has

MEDIATORS OF NICOTINE‐INDUCED RELAXATIONS OF THE RAT GASTRIC FUNDUS

TLDR
Relaxations of strips of rat gastric fundus were elicited with nicotine, nitric oxide, NO, sodium nitroprusside, SNP, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide to study the effects of these drugs on intestinal motility and constipation.

Distribution of inducible nitric oxide synthase in ulcerative colitis.

TLDR
No in colonic mucosa may play a potential role in the pathogenesis of UC, and iNOS expression in colon mucosa was virtually absent during the inactive stage of UC and within the colon of patients with non-UC colitis.

Non-smoking: a feature of ulcerative colitis.

TLDR
It is suggested that chlormethiazole may have caused dysphagia by a direct action on the central mechanisms concerned in swallowing and the prevalence and mechanism of oesophageal dysfunction in patients taking this drug is investigated.

Role of Nitric Oxide in the Colon of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

TLDR
It is suggested that NANC inhibitory nerves play an important role in the impaired motility observed in patients with UC and that NO plays anImportant role as a neurotransmitter in NANC inhibitsory nerves of human colon.

Transdermal nicotine for active ulcerative colitis.

TLDR
The addition of transdermal nicotine to conventional maintenance therapy improves symptoms in patients with ulcerative colitis.

A meta-analysis of the role of smoking in inflammatory bowel disease

TLDR
There is no justification for health care providers to change the Surgeon General's recommendations on smoking or tobacco use for ulcerative colitis patients specifically and a review of the literature, meta-analysis of selected studies, and assessment of causality criterion suggest that not smoking and ulceratives colitis and smoking and Crohn's disease are consistent with a causal relationship.