Evaluation of Energy Balance on Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) Alternative Splicing by Semi-quantitative RT-PCR in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
The process of nitric-oxide (NO)-induced cellular toxicity may involve energy deprivation since the radical is reported to prevent both mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis. In order to determine whether these processes are important in NO-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, we used a cell culture model of the BBB and compared the effects of gaseous NO, potassium cyanide (KCN, a mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitor) and iodoacetate [IA, an inhibitor of the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)] on endothelial cell ATP content, GAPDH activity and barrier integrity. NO lead to a rapid breakdown in model barrier integrity and resulted in a reduction in endothelial cell ATP content and GAPDH activity. KCN had no effect on endothelial cell ATP content or barrier integrity, while IA, at a concentration that completely blocked endothelial cell GAPDH activity, resulted in a rapid decline in ATP content but did not lead to a decline in barrier integrity until at least 2 h of exposure. These results indicate that inhibition of endothelial cell GAPDH activity rather than mitochondrial respiration causes an energy deficiency and delayed barrier dysfunction. However, the rapid detrimental effects of gaseous NO on barrier integrity cannot be fully explained by endothelial cell energy depletion and may be related to the actions of the free radical and its products on cellular lipids.