Nitrate and nitrite in biology, nutrition and therapeutics.

@article{Lundberg2009NitrateAN,
  title={Nitrate and nitrite in biology, nutrition and therapeutics.},
  author={Jon O. Lundberg and Mark T. Gladwin and Amrita Ahluwalia and Nigel Benjamin and Nathan S. Bryan and Anthony R. Butler and Pedro Cabrales and Angela Fago and Martin Feelisch and Peter C Ford and Bruce A Freeman and Michael P. Frenneaux and Joel M. Friedman and Malte Kelm and Christopher G. Kevil and Daniel B. Kim‐Shapiro and Andrey V. Kozlov and Jack R Jr Lancaster and David J. Lefer and Kenneth E. L. McColl and Kenneth R. McCurry and Rakesh P Patel and Joel Petersson and Tienush Rassaf and V P Reutov and George B. Richter‐Addo and Alan N Schechter and Sruti S. Shiva and Koichiro Tsuchiya and Ernst E. H. van Faassen and Andrew James Webb and Brian S Zuckerbraun and Jay L. Zweier and Eddie Weitzberg},
  journal={Nature chemical biology},
  year={2009},
  volume={5 12},
  pages={
          865-9
        }
}
Inorganic nitrate and nitrite from endogenous or dietary sources are metabolized in vivo to nitric oxide (NO) and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway is emerging as an important mediator of blood flow regulation, cell signaling, energetics and tissue responses to hypoxia. The latest advances in our understanding of the biochemistry, physiology and therapeutics of nitrate, nitrite and NO were discussed during a recent 2-day meeting at the Nobel Forum, Karolinska… Expand

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TLDR
This Review discusses the emerging important biological functions of the nitrate–nitrite–NO pathway, and highlights studies that implicate the therapeutic potential of nitrate and nitrite in conditions such as myocardial infarction, stroke, systemic and pulmonary hypertension, and gastric ulceration. Expand
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TLDR
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TLDR
A role for mammalian nitrate reduction in regulation of nitrite and NO homeostasis is suggested in rodent and human tissues and is suggested by the xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor allopurinol. Expand
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TLDR
The mechanisms and properties of these various pathways and the role played by the local concentration of free oxygen in the affected tissue are discussed and additional direct signaling events not involving free nitric oxide are proposed. Expand
Nitrite is a signaling molecule and regulator of gene expression in mammalian tissues
Mammalian tissues produce nitric oxide (NO) to modify proteins at heme and sulfhydryl sites, thereby regulating vital cell functions. The majority of NO produced is widely assumed to be neutralizedExpand
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Nitrite has now been proposed to play an important physiological role in signaling, blood flow regulation and hypoxic nitric oxide homeostasis. A recent two-day symposium at the US NationalExpand
Inorganic nitrate is a possible source for systemic generation of nitric oxide.
TLDR
The results challenge the dogma that nitrate is biologically inert and instead suggest that a complete reverse pathway for generation of NO from nitrate exists. Expand
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TLDR
The significant influence of dietary nitrite and nitrate intake on the maintenance of steady-state tissue nitrite/nitroso levels is demonstrated and the consequences of nitrite deficiency on the pathophysiology of MI/R injury are illustrated. Expand
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TLDR
The evidence that nitrate-reducing commensals have a true symbiotic role in mammals and facilitate a previously unrecognized but potentially important aspect of the nitrogen cycle is considered. Expand
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TLDR
Novel anti-inflammatory properties of nitrite are revealed and the use of nitrites as a new natural therapy for microvascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction associated with hypercholesterolemia are implicate. Expand
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