Nitrate and human health

  title={Nitrate and human health},
  author={T. M. Addiscott and Nigel Benjamin},
  journal={Soil Use and Management},
Abstract. Nitrate is widely and mistakenly perceived to threaten human health by causing methaemoglobinaemia in infants and stomach cancer in adults, but it does cause environmental problems. Methaemoglobinaemia is a side‐effect of gastroenteritis and is not caused by nitrate but by nitric oxide, which is produced in a defensive reaction stimulated by gastroenteritis. The latter may be caused by a bacterium or a virus. The association of methaemoglobinaemia with nitrate may have arisen because… 

Relationship of nitrates and nitrites in the water environment with humans and their activity

Nitrates and nitrites in water pose a health and environmental hazards, in particular when exceeding limits defined in the European Union, i.e. max. 50 mg l of nitrates. It is not recommended to

Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?

It is concluded that it is not possible to weigh the costs and benefits from changing the nitrate standard for drinking water and groundwater resources by considering the potential consequences for human health and byconsidering the potential savings due to reduced costs for nitrate removal and prevention of nitrate pollution.

A quantitative risk assessment of exposure to nitrates in drinking water and thyroid disorders in East Anglia, United Kingdom

The review should include a consideration of lowering the drinking water standard; reduction of nitrates in drinking water sources and/-or introducing iodine prophylaxis in the UK given that the effect of nitrate on the thyroid gland is dependent on the amount of dietary iodine intake.

Non-carcinogenic health risk assessment of nitrate in bottled drinking waters sold in Iranian markets: A Monte Carlo simulation

The results showed that health risk in all the studies was well within the safe zone (HQ < 1) during all the years, which indicates that these bottled waters do not induce non-carcinogenic risk.

Nitrogen Pollution, Plants and Human Health

Limited supply of reactive nitrogen compounds had been a key constraint to human development before the nineteenth century and mankind would rely heavily and entirely on fossil nitrogen and manure

Nitrate Intake from Drinking Water in Isfahan in 2004

Results of this study show that the nitrate levels found in the water analyzed were optimum for human consumption and complied with WHO and current European Legislation.

A Review of the Use of Organic Amendments and the Risk to Human Health

Statement on possible public health risks for infants and young children from the presence of nitrates in leafy vegetables

Nitrate exposure at the current or proposed maximum levels for nitrate in spinach cooked from fresh is unlikely to be a health concern, although a risk for some infants eating more than one spinach meal in a day cannot be excluded.

Naturally cured meats: Quality, safety, and chemistry

Natural and organic food regulations limit the use of sodium nitrite/nitrate and other antimicrobials. Consequently, processors began to use natural nitrate/nitrite sources to manufacture products

Reduction of Perchlorate and Nitrate by Aluminum Activated by pH Change and Electrochemically Induced Pitting Corrosion.

Reduction of Perchlorate and Nitrate by Aluminum Activated by pH Change and Electrochemically Induced Pitting Corrosion. (May 2010) Aditya Babu Raut Desai, B.E., Goa University; M.S., Texas A&M



Nitrates in the human diet - good or bad?

There is no definite evidence as yet that this mech- anism is truly protective in humans exposed to a contaminated environment, but further understanding of the complex chemistry of nitrogen oxides may also help develop new antimicrobial therapies based on augmenting what seems to be a simple and effective host defence system.

Antimicrobial effect of acidified nitrite on cariogenic bacteria.

The results demonstrate the possibility that nitrite in saliva has an effect on the growth and survival of cariogenic bacteria.

Antimicrobial effect of acidified nitrite on gut pathogens: importance of dietary nitrate in host defense

Generation of salivary nitrite from dietary nitrate may provide significant protection against gut pathogens in humans, and addition of SCN-, but not that of CI-, increased the antibacterial activity.

Chemical generation of nitric oxide in the mouth from the enterosalivary circulation of dietary nitrate

It is proposed that the salivary generation of nitrite is accomplished by a symbiotic relationship involving nitrate-reducing bacteria on the tongue surface, which is designed to provide host defence against microbial pathogens in the mouth and lower gut.

Helicobacter pylori is killed by nitrite under acidic conditions

The antimicrobial effect of nitrite at pH 2 against H pylori was dose dependent and complete kill of organisms occurred at concentrations ⩾500 μmol/l, which should prompt further research into the effect of salivary nitrite on the survival of H plyori in the human stomach.

The effect of amoxycillin on salivary nitrite concentrations: an important mechanism of adverse reactions?

It is suggested that destruction of nitrate reductase containing bacteria in the mouth by antibiotics may explain an increased incidence of infection with Candida and other pathogens.

Chemical synthesis of nitric oxide in the stomach from dietary nitrate in humans.

A very large and sustained increase in chemically derived gastric NO concentrations after an oral nitrate load was shown, which may be important both in host defence against swallowed pathogens and in gastric physiology.

Infantile methemoglobinemia: reexamining the role of drinking water nitrates.

  • A. Avery
  • Medicine
    Environmental health perspectives
  • 1999
Gastrointestinal infection and inflammation and the ensuing overproduction of nitric oxide may be the cause of many cases of infantile methemoglobinemia previously attributed to drinking water nitrates.

Cyanosis in Infants caused by Nitrates in Well Water.

Two examples of a previously unrecognized condition which may be confused with congenital heart disease are cited in this report. The condition may occur anywhere in rural areas where well water is

Mortality of nitrate fertiliser workers.

The results of this study weight against the idea that exposure to nitrates in the environment leads to the formation in vivo of material amounts of carcinogens.