Nitazoxanide, a broad-spectrum thiazolide anti-infective agent for the treatment of gastrointestinal infections

  title={Nitazoxanide, a broad-spectrum thiazolide anti-infective agent for the treatment of gastrointestinal infections},
  author={Andrew Hemphill and Joachim Mueller and Marco Esposito},
  journal={Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy},
  pages={953 - 964}
Colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract by anaerobic bacteria, protozoa, trematodes, cestodes and/or nematodes and other infectious pathogens, including viruses, represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa, South America and southeast Asia, as well as other parts of the world. Nitazoxanide is a member of the thiazolide class of drugs with a documented broad spectrum of activity against parasites and anaerobic bacteria. Moreover, the drug has recently been reported to have a… 
Thiazolides, a Novel Class of Anti-Infective Drugs, Effective Against Viruses, Bacteria, Intracellular and Extracellular Protozoan Parasites and Proliferating Mammalian Cells
Biochemical and genetic approaches have allowed the identification of respective targets and the molecular basis of resistance formation, and studies strongly suggest that NTZ and other thiazolides exhibit multiple mechanisms of action.
Novel amidines and analogues as promising agents against intracellular parasites: a systematic review
This review summarizes the knowledge on amidines and analogues with respect to their synthesis, pharmacological profile, mechanistic and biological effects upon a range of intracellular protozoan parasites to contribute to the future design and structure optimization of new aromatic dicationic compounds as novel antiparasitic drug candidates.
Current treatment options for Dientamoeba fragilis infections.
Evaluation of Putative Anti-cryptosporidial Drugs in an in vitro Culture System
Testing a substituted benzimidazole and a heterocyclic substituted 1,2,4-triazin, both drugs with known anti-protozoal activity, for their potential ability to interfere with Cryptosporidium parvum development in vitro found both BAY-AB24992 and Bay-AF76184 should be considered for further evaluation.
In vitro and in vivo antileishmanial efficacy of nitazoxanide against Leishmania donovani
Results indicated NTZ may be a novel therapeutic drug for leishmaniasis, indicating that NTZ can affect the ultrastructure of parasite promastigote and efficiently inhibit the parasite growth.
Progress in the Discovery of Treatments for C. difficile Infection: A Clinical and Medicinal Chemistry Review
Current clinical treatment strategies and agents under clinical development for C. difficile infection are summarized and newly reported anti-difficile agents that have been evaluated or reevaluated in the last five years are reviewed.
Amixicile, a Novel Inhibitor of Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase, Shows Efficacy against Clostridium difficile in a Mouse Infection Model
Results suggest that gut repopulation with beneficial (non-PFOR) bacteria, considered essential for protection against CDI, rebounds much sooner with amixicile therapy than with vancomycin or fidaxomicin, and appears to be a very promising new candidate for treatment of CDI.


Nitazoxanide, a Nitrothiazolide Antiparasitic Drug, Is an Anti-Helicobacter pylori Agent with Anti-Vacuolating Toxin Activity
It was apparent that both NTZ and TIZ are highly effective against H. pylori, even when the bacteria are resistant to MTZ.
Mechanisms of action of nitazoxanide and related drugs against helminths.
The 5-nitrothiazole, nitazoxanide, is a novel compound with a broad spectrum of activity that is effective against anaerobic/microaerophilic environments, but also likely to affect helminths by a direct effect on neurotransmission and protonophoric uncoupling.
Nitazoxanide: a new broad spectrum antiparasitic agent.
  • C. White
  • Medicine, Biology
    Expert review of anti-infective therapy
  • 2004
Nitazoxanide is the first agent proven to be effective in cryptosporidiosis and has also proven efficacy in giardiasis, and is efficacious again intestinal helminths.
Nitazoxanide: a new thiazolide antiparasitic agent.
  • L. Fox, L. Saravolatz
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2005
Nitazoxanide is a new thiazolide antiparasitic agent that shows excellent in vitro activity against a wide variety of protozoa and helminths and is well tolerated, with primarily mild gastrointestinal side effects.
Nitazoxanide for the treatment of intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in Mexico.
In Vitro Parasiticidal Effect of Nitazoxanide against Echinococcus multilocularis Metacestodes
The in vitro parasiticidal effect of nitazoxanide (NTZ), a broad-spectrum drug used against intestinal parasites and bacteria, was investigated and showed that in vitro treatment of E. multilocularis metacestodes with NTZ induced high levels of alkaline phosphatase activity in the medium.
Treatment of intestinal parasitic infections: a review of nitazoxanide.
In Vitro Efficacies of Nitazoxanide and Other Thiazolides against Neospora caninum Tachyzoites Reveal Antiparasitic Activity Independent of the Nitro Group
It is shown that the thiazole-associated nitro group is not necessarily required for the action of the drug and that methylation of the salicylate ring can result in complete abrogation ofThe antiparasitic activity of NTZ, depending on the positioning of the methyl group.
In vitro effects of nitazoxanide on Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces and metacestodes.
In vitro efficacy of nitazoxanide, a broad-spectrum drug used against intestinal parasites and bacteria, was investigated and indicates a potential for nitaz oxanide as an alternative treatment option against CE.
In vitro evaluation of activities of nitazoxanide and tizoxanide against anaerobes and aerobic organisms
Under aerobic conditions, nitazoxanide demonstrated poor activity against members of the family Enterobacteriacae and Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus species, and the same results were obtained when culture was performed under anaerobic conditions with the notable exception of the results against Staphlyococcus aureus.