Nipple discharge after nipple-sparing mastectomy: should the areola complex always be removed?

Nipple discharge (ND) is a common symptom with a reported incidence of 2% to 5% of patients referred to breast cancer clinics. Approximately 90% of ND is of benign etiology. An underlying carcinoma is present with a rate of 6% to 21%. This is more frequent if it is associated with clinical or radiologic abnormality. ND after nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM… (More)