Nipple-areola reconstruction: outcome assessment

  title={Nipple-areola reconstruction: outcome assessment},
  author={Mohamad Hussain and L. Rynn and Colin L. Riordan and P. J. Regan},
  journal={European Journal of Plastic Surgery},
The creation of the nipple-areola complex (NAC) is usually the final step in the surgical treatment of breast cancer patients. It has substantial aesthetic and symbolic implications for the patients involved. In this study we reviewed 17 consecutive nipple-areola reconstructions over a 4-year period. Breast reconstruction in these patients was performed using a combination of breast implant only (n=4) and flap reconstructions (latissimus dorsi, TRAM) (n=13). The skate flap technique was used… 
A feasibility study of a rotary planar electrode array for electrical impedance mammography using a digital breast phantom.
The RPEIM system is shown to have superior performance in image accuracy, spatial resolution and noise tolerance over the MK4 system, and to assist impedance evaluation exploiting electrode array rotation, a synchronous mesh method is proposed.


Long-term predictable nipple projection following reconstruction.
The dimensions of the star dermal fat flap can be strategically modified to allow the surgeon predictable projection with a consistent 41-percent preservation of intraoperative nipple projection in both TRAM and implant patients at 2 years.
The Psychological Contribution of Nipple Addition in Breast Reconstruction
Of the nine scales of clinical symptomatology on the Brief Symptom Inventory, the nipple-added group showed more increased symptoms on seven of the nine and was significantly higher on two of these scales, namely, paranoid ideation and anxiety.
Long‐Term Experience with Nipple‐Areola Tattooing
Nipple-areola tattooing done with iron oxide and titanium dioxide pigments thus appears to be a reasonably safe and effective procedure in most patients but may require one or more subsequent touch-ups for appropriate color match.
Sensitive areolar reconstruction in using a neurocutaneous island flap based on the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve.
The bilateral reconstruction of a sensitive areola using a neurocutaneous flap based on the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve is reported and it is thought it should be used in selected patients.
Nipple reconstruction with a new local tissue flap.
A one-staged local cutaneous-fat flap for nipple reconstruction that represents a modification of existing cutaneous or dermal-fat flaps with theoretical and apparent benefits inherent in its design.
The use of Munsell colour charts in nipple-areola tattooing.
Three nipple-areola colours were more common than others and were found in 50% of patients; these can be premixed ready for use and Adjustment of premixed colours for individual patients can be performed prior to tattooing, speeding up the procedure.
Nipple-areolar reconstruction