The Japan Multicenter Investigation of Antihypertensive Treatment for Nephropathy in Diabetics (J-MIND) study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nifedipine retard or enalapril on nephropathy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 436 patients with normoalbuminuria [urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) <30 mg/day] or microalbuminuria [AER: 30-300 mg/day] were randomized to receive nifedipine retard or enalapril and were followed for 24 months. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups (the mean AER was 45 and 42 mg/day, respectively). Intent-to-treat analysis showed no significant difference in AER after 2 years, although the mean AER increased to 64 and 74 mg/day in the nifedipine retard and enalapril groups, respectively. The AER increased in patients with normoalbuminuria, whereas it did not change in those with microalbuminuria. There were no differences between the two groups with respect to progression from normoalbuminuria to microalbuminuria, progression from microalbuminuria to overt proteinuria, and regression from microalbuminuria to normoalbuminuria. The incidence of cardiovascular events was also similar in both groups. In conclusion, nifedipine retard and enalapril had a similar effect on nephropathy in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients without overt proteinuria.